About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college pathology material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:
- Have fallen behind in understanding cellular injury, immunotherapy and postmortem changes.
- Need an efficient way to learn about the basic components of pathophysiology.
- Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
- Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
- Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
- Missed class time and need to catch up.
- Can't access extra science learning resources at school.
How it works:
- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Basic Components of Pathophysiology chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Basic Components of Pathophysiology chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What is the fluid mosaic model?
- What are the causes and types of cellular injury?
- Why do cells and tissues swell?
- When can cellular injury lead to death?
- What are some typical changes that take place postmortem?
- What are the guiding principles behind immunotherapy and vaccinations?
1. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
2. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
3. Cellular Adaptation: Increases in Number or Size
This lesson will compare and contrast different types of cell, organ, and tissue growths. More specifically, we'll cover hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and neoplasia.
4. Conversion or Decreases in Cell Type or Number
This lesson will discuss cellular changes in the body such as metaplasia, dysplasia, atrophy, aplasia, and hypoplasia. We'll talk about their meanings as well as some examples of why they may occur.
5. Causes of Cell Injury: Oxygen Deficiency
This lesson will discuss how cells may be damaged due to various causes of oxygen deficiency. We'll discuss hypoxia, anoxia, ischemia, anemia, carbon monoxide, and cyanide toxicity.
6. Types of Physical Injury to Cells
This lesson will discuss some forms of cellular injury, such as trauma, temperature extremes, and radiation, as well as why cells are damaged in these events and how that may impact your body if the damage is severe enough.
7. Cellular Injury: Infectious Causes & Their Processes
This lesson will talk about how bacteria, viruses, and parasites may contribute to or directly cause injuries and death to cells, organs, and the entire body. We will discuss exotoxins, endotoxins, and much more.
8. Other Causes of Cellular Injury
This lesson will point out some ways that the cells in our body can become injured as a result of an aberrant immune system, dietary problems, and metabolic and genetic diseases.
9. How a Cell Recognizes an Injury
Cells can suffer damage resulting from infection, trauma, or injury. When this happens, cells must decide how to respond for the good of the body. In this lesson, we'll learn how a cell recognizes injury and uses apoptosis, necrosis, and other signals to die or even kill itself.
10. The Causes and Significance of Cell Swelling
This lesson will discuss the main manifestation of cellular injury, called cell swelling. We'll delve into exactly why this occurs as well as how ATP and fatty degeneration are involved.
11. The Causes and Significance of Tissue Swelling
This lesson will discuss the different types of swelling and growths that may appear in or on your organs and tissues. We'll cover everything from hematomas and seromas to cancer and splenomegaly.
12. Irreversible Cellular Injury and Death: Types and Causes
This lesson will discuss the different causes and types of irreversible cell injury. Notably, we'll focus in on the different types of necrosis that may occur in the body, their causes, and what they may look like.
13. The Consequences of Intracellular Accumulations
This lesson will discuss the basic concepts of intracellular, tissue, and organ accumulations, why they may occur and what they may cause. Lipid, glycogen, pigment, iron, and protein accumulation will be covered.
14. Common Postmortem Changes
This lesson will discuss four common postmortem changes. Namely, we'll look into algor mortis, rigor mortis, pallor mortis, and livor mortis. We'll talk about what they mean, why they occur, and how they might be used by a crime scene investigator.
15. Vaccination and Immunotherapy
This lesson will discuss the basics of how diseases can be prevented or treated using our own immune system's components. We'll talk about vaccination and immunotherapy as well as some specific examples, such as the BCG vaccine, monoclonal antibodies, and more.
16. Rigor Mortis: Definition, Timeline & Stages
What was the time of death? This is often asked by family members of the deceased after a death investigator completes the initial investigation. One of the most important processes after death is rigor mortis. Learn more about this term, the timeline and its various stages.
17. Medication Adherence: Definition, Tools, & Statistics
Medication adherence refers to taking prescription medications correctly. There are many reasons people might not follow their doctor's directions, and we'll take a look at some of these here, as well as some tools you can use to make adherence easier.
18. Adjuvant Therapy: Definition & Medications
This lesson will define adjuvant therapy and discuss the use of such intervention. It will also describe some common medications used as part of the therapeutic regimen.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology: Help and Review course
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System: Help and Review
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia: Help and Review
- Skin-Related Pathology: Help and Review
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System: Help and Review
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System: Help and Review
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects: Help and Review
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Help and Review
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Diseases of the Urinary System: Help and Review
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System: Help and Review
- Metabolic Derangements: Help and Review
- Blood Disorders - Anemia: Help and Review
- Hematological Maladies: Help and Review
- Blood Cancers: Help and Review
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System: Help and Review
- Reproductive System Disorders: Help and Review
- Clinical Test Results - Cells and Blood Proteins: Help and Review
- Clinical Test Results - Organ Function and Health: Help and Review
- Clinical Tests for Electrolyte Levels