About This Chapter
The Basic Components of Pathophysiology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter introduces the foundational elements of pathophysiology, outlining the structure of cells and delving into different conditions that can affect and damage them. Examinations of physical, infectious, and swelling-related causes of cell damage are all included. Lessons also address tissue structure and tumors, discussing how cells can be affected on a macrocosmic level. By the time you've finished this chapter, you should understand the following:
- How a cell detects and responds to injury
- Types and causes of physical cell injuries
- Cell structure and organization
- Signs and causes of cell and tissue swelling
- Ways immunization can offer protection against pathologies
|The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane||Become familiar with cell membrane components and the functions of proteins, cholesterol, and carbohydrates. Observe cell structure via the fluid mosaic model.|
|Multicellular Organisms, Tissues, and Epithelium||Define 'multicellular.' Understand cell organization and learn about epithelial tissue.|
|Cellular Adaptation: Increases in Number or Size||Recognize the reasons for and signs of cellular shifts. Differentiate between hyperplasia, desmoplasia, hypertrophy, and neoplasia.|
|Conversion or Decreases in Cell Type or Number||Understand cell conversion and the significance of a decrease in cell numbers. Explain aplasia, atrophy, dysplasia, metaplasia, and hypoplasia.|
|Causes of Cell Injury: Oxygen Deficiency||Describe the signs and causes of carbon monoxide toxicity, hypoxia, anoxia anemia, cyanide toxicity, ischemia, and reperfusion injury.|
|Types of Physical Injury to Cells||Identify causes of cell injury (extreme temperatures, blunt force trauma, exertion, etc.).|
|Cellular Injury: Infectious Causes and Their Processes||Articulate how infectious agents infiltrate and affect cells.|
|Other Causes of Cellular Injury||Recognize metabolic, genetic, immune-related, etc., contributors to cell injury.|
|How a Cell Recognizes an Injury||Understand how cells identify and communicate injury and how the body responds.|
|The Causes and Significance of Cell Swelling||Identify causes and symptoms of cell swelling. Differentiate between hypertrophy and cell swelling.|
|The Causes and Significance of Tissue Swelling||Distinguish among different types of tumors, including malignant and benign. Understand the potential detrimental or life-threatening effects of benign tumors.|
|Irreversible Cellular Injury and Death: Types and Causes||Recognize conditions that result in irrevocable cell impairment (necrosis, apoptosis, etc.).|
|The Consequences of Intracellular Accumulations||Learn the causes, symptoms, and results of storage diseases.|
|Immunization and Vaccination||Explain how immunization can protect against pathologies.|
1. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
2. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
3. Cellular Adaptation: Increases in Number or Size
This lesson will compare and contrast different types of cell, organ, and tissue growths. More specifically, we'll cover hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and neoplasia.
4. Conversion or Decreases in Cell Type or Number
This lesson will discuss cellular changes in the body such as metaplasia, dysplasia, atrophy, aplasia, and hypoplasia. We'll talk about their meanings as well as some examples of why they may occur.
5. Causes of Cell Injury: Oxygen Deficiency
This lesson will discuss how cells may be damaged due to various causes of oxygen deficiency. We'll discuss hypoxia, anoxia, ischemia, anemia, carbon monoxide, and cyanide toxicity.
6. Types of Physical Injury to Cells
This lesson will discuss some forms of cellular injury, such as trauma, temperature extremes, and radiation, as well as why cells are damaged in these events and how that may impact your body if the damage is severe enough.
7. Cellular Injury: Infectious Causes & Their Processes
This lesson will talk about how bacteria, viruses, and parasites may contribute to or directly cause injuries and death to cells, organs, and the entire body. We will discuss exotoxins, endotoxins, and much more.
8. Other Causes of Cellular Injury
This lesson will point out some ways that the cells in our body can become injured as a result of an aberrant immune system, dietary problems, and metabolic and genetic diseases.
9. How a Cell Recognizes an Injury
Cells can suffer damage resulting from infection, trauma, or injury. When this happens, cells must decide how to respond for the good of the body. In this lesson, we'll learn how a cell recognizes injury and uses apoptosis, necrosis, and other signals to die or even kill itself.
10. The Causes and Significance of Cell Swelling
This lesson will discuss the main manifestation of cellular injury, called cell swelling. We'll delve into exactly why this occurs as well as how ATP and fatty degeneration are involved.
11. The Causes and Significance of Tissue Swelling
This lesson will discuss the different types of swelling and growths that may appear in or on your organs and tissues. We'll cover everything from hematomas and seromas to cancer and splenomegaly.
12. Irreversible Cellular Injury and Death: Types and Causes
This lesson will discuss the different causes and types of irreversible cell injury. Notably, we'll focus in on the different types of necrosis that may occur in the body, their causes, and what they may look like.
13. The Consequences of Intracellular Accumulations
This lesson will discuss the basic concepts of intracellular, tissue, and organ accumulations, why they may occur and what they may cause. Lipid, glycogen, pigment, iron, and protein accumulation will be covered.
14. Common Postmortem Changes
This lesson will discuss four common postmortem changes. Namely, we'll look into algor mortis, rigor mortis, pallor mortis, and livor mortis. We'll talk about what they mean, why they occur, and how they might be used by a crime scene investigator.
15. Vaccination and Immunotherapy
This lesson will discuss the basics of how diseases can be prevented or treated using our own immune system's components. We'll talk about vaccination and immunotherapy as well as some specific examples, such as the BCG vaccine, monoclonal antibodies, and more.
Earning College Credit
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
- Metabolic Derangements
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins
- Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health