About This Chapter
The Central Dogma of Biology & Protein Synthesis - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll review short and entertaining lessons about protein synthesis and the central dogma of biology. Work through the chapter to make sense of the genetic code and familiarize yourself with mRNA transcription, genetic translation and codon recognition. To make sure you take away important concepts from the chapter, we've included lesson-specific quizzes and a comprehensive chapter exam. The chapter can be accessed 24/7, which helps you study these biology topics whenever you have free time. When you're finished, you should be equipped to:
- Outline the process of protein synthesis
- Explain the transcription of mRNA from DNA
- Identify the genetic code that translates RNA into amino acids
- Describe the purpose and process of codon recognition
- Discuss the role of peptide bonds and ribosomes in genetic translation
- Analyze mRNA's translation into protein
- Describe protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Polypeptide: Definition, Formation & Structure
Polypeptides are chains of amino acids and essential portions of proteins in cells. In this video, learn how polypeptides are formed and what's unique to their structure.
4. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
5. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
6. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
9. Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes
In this lesson, we'll review what prokaryotes are first. Then, we'll explain the steps and process of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and discover what makes it unique from protein synthesis in other cells.
10. Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
What kind of cells are you made of and how do these cells make protein? In this lesson, we will answer these questions through an investigation into protein synthesis in eukaryotes.
11. Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis
Mitochondria, the miniature powerhouses of the cell, act like tiny batteries to give us energy and to utilize oxygen. In this lesson we'll discuss how mitochondria make their proteins, and how these proteins are used.
12. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Protein synthesis is essential for living cells. Medications that can stop pathogens from making proteins help get rid of infections. This lesson talks about how different types of protein synthesis inhibitors work.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Biology 203: Cell & Molecular Biology course
- Biological Molecules
- Cell Structure & Function Overview
- Cell Membrane & Transport Overview
- Principles of Cell Metabolism
- Photosynthesis Fundamentals
- Cellular Respiration & Fermentation
- Cell Cycles
- Patterns of Genetic Inheritance
- DNA Structure & Replication
- Mutation & DNA Damage
- Structure & Function of Viruses
- Control of Gene Expression
- Genetic Manipulation Overview