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Ch 11: The Central Dogma of Biology & Protein Synthesis

About This Chapter

This self-paced and mobile-friendly chapter examines the central dogma of biology and protein synthesis. Work through these engaging lessons and mini quizzes to review these topics for upcoming exams, catch up in a class, bring up your grades or simply improve your biology knowledge.

The Central Dogma of Biology & Protein Synthesis - Chapter Summary

In this chapter, you'll review short and entertaining lessons about protein synthesis and the central dogma of biology. Work through the chapter to make sense of the genetic code and familiarize yourself with mRNA transcription, genetic translation and codon recognition. To make sure you take away important concepts from the chapter, we've included lesson-specific quizzes and a comprehensive chapter exam. The chapter can be accessed 24/7, which helps you study these biology topics whenever you have free time. When you're finished, you should be equipped to:

  • Outline the process of protein synthesis
  • Explain the transcription of mRNA from DNA
  • Identify the genetic code that translates RNA into amino acids
  • Describe the purpose and process of codon recognition
  • Discuss the role of peptide bonds and ribosomes in genetic translation
  • Analyze mRNA's translation into protein
  • Describe protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

12 Lessons in Chapter 11: The Central Dogma of Biology & Protein Synthesis
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Polypeptide: Definition, Formation & Structure

3. Polypeptide: Definition, Formation & Structure

Polypeptides are chains of amino acids and essential portions of proteins in cells. In this video, learn how polypeptides are formed and what's unique to their structure.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

4. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

5. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

6. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes

9. Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes

In this lesson, we'll review what prokaryotes are first. Then, we'll explain the steps and process of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and discover what makes it unique from protein synthesis in other cells.

Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes

10. Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes

What kind of cells are you made of and how do these cells make protein? In this lesson, we will answer these questions through an investigation into protein synthesis in eukaryotes.

Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis

11. Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis

Mitochondria, the miniature powerhouses of the cell, act like tiny batteries to give us energy and to utilize oxygen. In this lesson we'll discuss how mitochondria make their proteins, and how these proteins are used.

Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

12. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

Protein synthesis is essential for living cells. Medications that can stop pathogens from making proteins help get rid of infections. This lesson talks about how different types of protein synthesis inhibitors work.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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