About This Chapter
The Crusades & Church Reform in Medieval Europe - Chapter Summary
In this chapter's lessons, you can learn more about the causes and impact of the Crusades, including the history of the Great Crusades. Our instructors explain about the structure of the church at the time, examine the decisions of the Lateran Councils and delve into the reforming work of St. Francis.
Other lessons deal with the loss of papal authority and the schism in the church, including a time when there were three popes. After watching these videos, you should know more about topics including:
- Timeline of the Great Crusades
- The impact of the Little Ice Age and the Black Death
- The Investiture Conflict
- Heresies and inquisitions
- The work of Thomas Aquinas
- Babylonian captivity of the church
- The Western Schism
You can watch these videos as your schedule permits, on a computer or mobile device. Short multiple-choice quizzes follow each lesson, allowing you to assess your understanding of what you've just studied. There are timelines in the videos that make it simple to return to key points in the lesson for review.
1. The First Crusade: Causes and Effects
This lesson covers the motivations of Pope Urban II in calling for the crusade at Clermont and at the religious and secular motivations of European laymen. We will also look at the startling success of the first crusade.
2. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
3. The Little Ice Age and the Black Death
Fourteenth century Europe experienced a devastating population decline due to a climate cooling, famine, and the plague. This lesson explores how these factors occurred and their impact on Europe.
4. Monasticism from St. Benedict to Cluny
This lesson will trace the history of Western monasticism from Benedict to Cluny. It will focus on the Benedictine rule while also highlight monastic contributions to society.
5. The Roman Catholic Clergy
This lesson will list and describe the different members of the Medieval clergy. Beginning at the lower levels and ending with the Pope, it will outline the duties of each office.
6. The Investiture Conflict: Rulers vs. the Centralized Church
This lesson will explore the Investiture Conflict of the 11th and 12th centuries. In doing so, it will highlight the roles of Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. It will also explain the Concordat of Worms.
7. The 4 Lateran Councils: The Rules and Decisions
This lesson will discuss the Four Lateran Councils held between the years 1123 and 1215 CE. In doing so, it will explore and highlight the main themes and decisions of each.
8. Heresies and Inquisitions in the High Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages the term heresy referred to religious beliefs that were in disagreement with an established Christian doctrine. This lesson explores the often violent results of the growing popularity of heretical beliefs in the High Middle Ages.
9. Mendicants: St. Francis and Church Reforms
Catholicism spread throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. In response to growing power and separation from urban middle-class citizens, mendicants lived in poverty and reached out to the poor. This lesson explores the orders formed by the mendicants.
10. The Spread of Ancient Knowledge and Its Impact on the Church
Classical knowledge comes from ancient cultures like the Greeks and Romans. When Christians fought in the Crusades, they discovered some of these texts. This lesson explores the impact of classical learning on the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.
11. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.
12. Babylonian Captivity of the Church and the Decline of Papal Authority
In the Middle Ages, the power of the papacy began to decline. A French pope chose to move his court to France. This lesson explores this event, its background, and its impact on Catholicism.
13. The Western Schism and the Tale of 3 Popes
In the Middle Ages, the Catholic church ended up with three elected popes, creating a division in loyalty. This lesson explores how this incident occurred and how it was finally resolved.
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Other chapters within the AEPA History (NT302): Practice & Study Guide course
- Historical Concepts & Research
- Understanding Historical Resources
- Events & Contributions of Early Civilizations
- Ancient Near East Civilizations
- The Bronze Age in the Near East
- Ancient Africa & the Americas
- Dynasties & Confucianism in Ancient China
- Culture & Beliefs of Ancient India
- Contributions & History of Ancient Greece
- Hellenism & Athens
- The Roman Republic Rises
- History of the Fall of Rome
- History of Early Christianity
- The Byzantine Empire & Culture
- The Origins of Islam
- Contributions of Medieval European Politics
- The Hundred Years' War
- Asia in the Middle & Late Middle Ages
- Africa & the Americas in the Middle & Late Middle Ages
- History of the Renaissance
- The Protestant Reformation in Europe & Worldwide
- The Age of European Exploration & Discovery
- History of the Elizabethan Era
- Colonialism in Europe, Africa & the New World
- Major Figures & Events of the Scientific Revolution
- The Enlightenment
- Asia & Africa in the 15th-18th Centuries
- Political & Technological World Developments (1750-1914)
- European & Japanese Imperialism
- Battles & Consequences of World War I
- Causes & Events of World War II
- Civilizations of the Americas Before & After Colonization
- Colonial Settlements & Battles in North America (1497-1732)
- Events Leading to the American Revolution (1700-1774)
- Events & Leaders of the American Revolution
- The Birth of the United States (1776-1800)
- The Virginia Dynasty
- Jacksonian Democracy
- Everyday Life in Antebellum America
- Manifest Destiny & American Expansion
- Sectional Crisis & the Start of the Civil War (1850-1861)
- Battles & Effects of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
- American Reconstruction & the Gilded Age (1865-1877)
- American Industrialization & Urbanization (1870-1900)
- Figures & Events of the Progressive Era (1900-1917)
- American Imperialism & World War I
- American Life & Culture During the Roaring 20s (1920-1929)
- The Great Depression in the U.S. (1929-1940)
- American Involvement in World War ll (1941-1945)
- World Events & Politics After World War II (1946-1959)
- Events & Presidents During the Cold War (1950-1973)
- American Civil Disobedience, Protests & Activism (1954-1973)
- America in the 1970s
- America in the 1980s
- Politics & Major Figures of Contemporary America (1992-2013)
- AEPA History Flashcards