Ch 17: The Crusades & Church Reform in Medieval Europe

About This Chapter

Let us help you renew your understanding of church reform during the Middle Ages, including inquisitions, councils and the Western Schism. Other lessons look at the Crusades and their influence.

The Crusades & Church Reform in Medieval Europe - Chapter Summary

In this chapter's lessons, you can learn more about the causes and impact of the Crusades, including the history of the Great Crusades. Our instructors explain about the structure of the church at the time, examine the decisions of the Lateran Councils and delve into the reforming work of St. Francis.

Other lessons deal with the loss of papal authority and the schism in the church, including a time when there were three popes. After watching these videos, you should know more about topics including:

  • Timeline of the Great Crusades
  • The impact of the Little Ice Age and the Black Death
  • Monasticism
  • The Investiture Conflict
  • Heresies and inquisitions
  • The work of Thomas Aquinas
  • Babylonian captivity of the church
  • The Western Schism

You can watch these videos as your schedule permits, on a computer or mobile device. Short multiple-choice quizzes follow each lesson, allowing you to assess your understanding of what you've just studied. There are timelines in the videos that make it simple to return to key points in the lesson for review.

13 Lessons in Chapter 17: The Crusades & Church Reform in Medieval Europe
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The First Crusade: Causes and Effects

1. The First Crusade: Causes and Effects

This lesson covers the motivations of Pope Urban II in calling for the crusade at Clermont and at the religious and secular motivations of European laymen. We will also look at the startling success of the first crusade.

The Great Crusades: History and Timeline

2. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline

This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.

The Little Ice Age and the Black Death

3. The Little Ice Age and the Black Death

Fourteenth century Europe experienced a devastating population decline due to a climate cooling, famine, and the plague. This lesson explores how these factors occurred and their impact on Europe.

Monasticism from St. Benedict to Cluny

4. Monasticism from St. Benedict to Cluny

This lesson will trace the history of Western monasticism from Benedict to Cluny. It will focus on the Benedictine rule while also highlight monastic contributions to society.

The Roman Catholic Clergy

5. The Roman Catholic Clergy

This lesson will list and describe the different members of the Medieval clergy. Beginning at the lower levels and ending with the Pope, it will outline the duties of each office.

The Investiture Conflict: Rulers vs. the Centralized Church

6. The Investiture Conflict: Rulers vs. the Centralized Church

This lesson will explore the Investiture Conflict of the 11th and 12th centuries. In doing so, it will highlight the roles of Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. It will also explain the Concordat of Worms.

The 4 Lateran Councils: The Rules and Decisions

7. The 4 Lateran Councils: The Rules and Decisions

This lesson will discuss the Four Lateran Councils held between the years 1123 and 1215 CE. In doing so, it will explore and highlight the main themes and decisions of each.

Heresies and Inquisitions in the High Middle Ages

8. Heresies and Inquisitions in the High Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages the term heresy referred to religious beliefs that were in disagreement with an established Christian doctrine. This lesson explores the often violent results of the growing popularity of heretical beliefs in the High Middle Ages.

Mendicants: St. Francis and Church Reforms

9. Mendicants: St. Francis and Church Reforms

Catholicism spread throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. In response to growing power and separation from urban middle-class citizens, mendicants lived in poverty and reached out to the poor. This lesson explores the orders formed by the mendicants.

The Spread of Ancient Knowledge and Its Impact on the Church

10. The Spread of Ancient Knowledge and Its Impact on the Church

Classical knowledge comes from ancient cultures like the Greeks and Romans. When Christians fought in the Crusades, they discovered some of these texts. This lesson explores the impact of classical learning on the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church

11. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church

St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.

Babylonian Captivity of the Church and the Decline of Papal Authority

12. Babylonian Captivity of the Church and the Decline of Papal Authority

In the Middle Ages, the power of the papacy began to decline. A French pope chose to move his court to France. This lesson explores this event, its background, and its impact on Catholicism.

The Western Schism and the Tale of 3 Popes

13. The Western Schism and the Tale of 3 Popes

In the Middle Ages, the Catholic church ended up with three elected popes, creating a division in loyalty. This lesson explores how this incident occurred and how it was finally resolved.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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