About This Chapter
The Endocrine System - Lessons and Learning Objectives
The endocrine system is a system of glands within the body that release hormones. These hormones help to trigger various functions within the body. In this chapter, you'll learn about the different hormones regulated by the endocrine system. You'll also learn about the different glands, like the pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands. Lessons will also cover the reproductive hormones in the testes, ovaries and placenta. Some of the specific things you will learn include:
- About feedback in the endocrine system
- The functions of the pituitary gland
- Thyroid disorders
- The hormones of the pancreas
- The functions of the adrenal cortex
- Hormones in the placenta
|Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System||Discover what the endocrine systems is and how it functions.|
|Positive and Negative Feedback in the Endocrine System||Learn about the way the endocrine system communicates within the body.|
|What is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus||Explore the pituitary gland and its functions.|
|The Hypothalamus's Relationship with the Pituitary Gland||Examine how the hypothalamus works with the pituitary gland.|
|Anterior Pituitary Gland: Function and Hormones||Study the anterior pituitary gland.|
|Posterior Pituitary Gland: Function and Hormones||Analyze the functions of the posterior pituitary gland.|
|Pituitary Dysfunction: Disorders and Symptoms||Discover dysfunctions of the pituitary gland.|
|The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH||Explore the thyroid.|
|Thyroid Disorders: Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism & Thyroidectomy||Find out more about thyroid disorders.|
|Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH||Examine the parathyroid gland.|
|Pancreas: Function and Anatomical Features||Study the functions and features of the pancreas.|
|Pancreas: Insulin Production and Glucose Metabolism||Learn about how the pancreas produces insulin.|
|Disorders of the Pancreas: Types, Symptoms & Treatments||Analyze what disorders occur with the pancreas.|
|Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla||Discover the function of the adrenal glands.|
|Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation||Find out more about the adrenal glands and stress.|
|Adrenal Cortex: Functions and Androgens||Learn about the functions of the adrenal cortex.|
|Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance||Study aldosterone and body fluid balance as it relates to the adrenal cortex.|
|Adrenal Gland Disorders & Treatments: Addison's Disease and Prednisone||Examine disorders of the adrenal gland.|
|Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm||Explore the functions of the pineal gland.|
|Hormones of the Testes: Functions & Anatomical Features||Discover what hormones are produced in the testes.|
|Hormones of the Ovaries: Functions and Anatomical Features||Study the hormones of the ovaries.|
|Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG||Learn what hormones are found in the placenta.|
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
Hormones, which are the chemical messengers that drive much of the function of the human body, come from the endocrine system. Learn about the function of hormones, the glands that they come from, and the receptors along their journey.
2. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
The pineal gland holds the key to great sleep. Learn how your circadian rhythm of sleeping and waking is regulated by the hormone melatonin that is secreted by the pineal gland, and the seasonal affective disorder that might result when the pineal gland gets tricked by the weather.
3. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the skull that produces hormones into the bloodstream to maintain internal body functions. Learn about the function of the anterior pituitary gland, posterior pituitary gland, and the importance of the hypothalamus in hormone production.
4. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The pituitary gland produces a variety of hormones that affect growth and development, body metabolism, sexuality, and reproduction. Learn about the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland (growth hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, & thyroid-stimulating hormone), the function of each hormone, and the relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
5. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
The thyroid gland regulates blood calcium levels through calcitonin and is stimulated by TSH to form thyroid hormones. This lesson looks at the thyroid gland, thyroid hormones T3 and T4, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and calcitonin.
6. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
Parathyroid glands are endocrine glands on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands play a vital role in regulating the minerals calcium and phosphorous in the body. Learn about the structure of parathyroid glands, and the role these glands play in regulating calcium, phosphorus, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the body.
7. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The pancreas' islets of Langerhans produce insulin and glucagon, which are critical to regulate the body's blood sugar. Learn about this process and explore the pancreas' structure, functions, and anatomy. Understand insulin production and examine the endocrine and exocrine glands.
8. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
Adrenal glands are endocrine glands that are located above each of the kidneys. The outer part of the adrenal glands are known as the adrenal cortex and are responsible for secreting steroid hormones. The center of the adrenal glands are called the adrenal medulla and are responsible for releasing hormones known as catecholamines. Learn about the structure of adrenal glands, the types of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex, and the function of the adrenal medulla.
9. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation
The adrenal gland contains a subcomponent known as the adrenal medulla which is tightly linked with our fight or flight response. Learn about the catecholamines called epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released by the adrenal medulla when you are adapting to stress.
10. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens
Adrenal glands are endocrine organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the glands, which secrete steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens. Learn how the adrenal cortex secretes hormones, the function of glucocorticoids and androgens and specific types of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex.
11. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance
Adrenal glands are endocrine organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the glands, which secretes steroid hormones, including mineralocorticoids. Learn about the main mineralocorticoid - aldosterone, the role that aldosterone plays in the renin-angiotensin system, and how aldosterone regulates sodium, potassium and blood pressure in the body.
12. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The hormones of the testes and ovaries are responsible for the functions and anatomical development of these organs. Learn about the gonads, ovaries, estrogen and progesterone, and testes and testosterone.
13. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is vital to pregnancy. Learn about the structure and function of the placenta, and explore its hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and hCG. Review the corpus luteum and recognize which hormone is produced by a fertilized egg.
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Other chapters within the Biology 105: Anatomy & Physiology course
- Anatomy and Physiology Overview
- Chemical and Cellular Biology
- Tissue Biology
- Integumentary System
- Skeletal System
- Muscular System Anatomy
- Muscular System Physiology
- Introduction to the Human Nervous System
- The Central Nervous System in the Human Body
- The Peripheral Nervous System
- The Five Senses
- The Human Cardiovascular System - Blood & Heart
- The Human Cardiovascular System - Vessels & Circulation
- The Lymphatic System & Immunity
- Human Respiratory System
- Digestive System
- Urinary System
- Male and Female Reproductive Systems
- Studying for Biology 105