Ch 13: Medical Vocabulary for the Gastrointestinal System

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons to learn about the parts of the gastrointestinal system and how they function together to break down food. The quizzes that follow each lesson can help you gauge your comprehension of the materials.

The Gastrointestinal System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

When you take a bite of food, you probably don't give much thought to what happens to it once it's inside your body. Yet there are several parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) system that work to properly digest food and provide nutrients to the body. The lessons in this chapter focus on these parts, and you'll learn about their structures and roles in the digestion process. By watching the videos in this chapter, you'll explore:

  • What the purpose of digestion is
  • How the mouth, throat, and esophagus function
  • What accessory organs play digestive roles
  • How food move through the intestines
  • What conditions affect the GI system
  • How GI conditions are diagnosed and treated

VideoObjective
Major Structures of the Mouth, Esophagus, and StomachExplore the key structures of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach that support digestion.
Anatomy and Physiology of the MouthLearn about the parts of the mouth and how they start the digestive process.
Anatomy of the Throat and EsophagusSee how the parts of the throat and esophagus work in the process of swallowing.
What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and FunctionsDiscover the small intestine's sections and their functions.
What is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in DigestionGet details on how pancreatic enzymes break down food.
The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in DigestionFind out about the function of the gallbladder and liver, and bile's role in breaking down food.
Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular MovementLearn about food's movement and the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.
Major Structures of the IntestinesDiscover the parts and structure of the small and large intestines.
Accessory Organs of the Digestive SystemSee how organs other than the stomach play vital roles in digestion.
Important Functions of Digestion & Related Terminology Get info on the purpose and functions of digestion in the body.

10 Lessons in Chapter 13: Medical Vocabulary for the Gastrointestinal System
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Major Structures of the Mouth, Esophagus & Stomach

1. Major Structures of the Mouth, Esophagus & Stomach

Digestion starts in the mouth as food is chewed and mixed with saliva. Once food is softened, it's swallowed and on its way through the digestive tract. Learn the structures of the upper digestive tract, including the mouth, esophagus, and stomach.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth

2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth

The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.

Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus

3. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus

After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.

What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions

4. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions

In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.

What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion

5. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion

Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion

6. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion

Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.

Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement

7. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement

The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.

Major Structures of the Intestines

8. Major Structures of the Intestines

When the food you eat reaches your small intestine, it enters a war zone of enzymes that break it down into particles small enough to be absorbed into your cells. Learn about the divisions and parts of the small and large intestines.

Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

9. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System

Your pancreas, liver and gallbladder are accessory organs that help with the chemical digestion of food. Learn about the enzymes and other chemicals produced and stored in these organs as well as how they help you break down the foods you eat.

Important Functions of Digestion & Related Terminology

10. Important Functions of Digestion & Related Terminology

Have you ever experienced borborygmus? What about peristalis? This lesson will let you know; it's filled with terminology related to the functions of digestion!

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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