About This Chapter
The Gastrointestinal System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
When you take a bite of food, you probably don't give much thought to what happens to it once it's inside your body. Yet there are several parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) system that work to properly digest food and provide nutrients to the body. The lessons in this chapter focus on these parts, and you'll learn about their structures and roles in the digestion process. By watching the videos in this chapter, you'll explore:
- What the purpose of digestion is
- How the mouth, throat, and esophagus function
- What accessory organs play digestive roles
- How food move through the intestines
- What conditions affect the GI system
- How GI conditions are diagnosed and treated
|Major Structures of the Mouth, Esophagus, and Stomach||Explore the key structures of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach that support digestion.|
|Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth||Learn about the parts of the mouth and how they start the digestive process.|
|Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus||See how the parts of the throat and esophagus work in the process of swallowing.|
|What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions||Discover the small intestine's sections and their functions.|
|What is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion||Get details on how pancreatic enzymes break down food.|
|The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion||Find out about the function of the gallbladder and liver, and bile's role in breaking down food.|
|Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement||Learn about food's movement and the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.|
|Major Structures of the Intestines||Discover the parts and structure of the small and large intestines.|
|Accessory Organs of the Digestive System||See how organs other than the stomach play vital roles in digestion.|
|Important Functions of Digestion & Related Terminology||Get info on the purpose and functions of digestion in the body.|
1. Major Structures of the Mouth, Esophagus & Stomach
Digestion starts in the mouth as food is chewed and mixed with saliva. Once food is softened, it's swallowed and on its way through the digestive tract. Learn the structures of the upper digestive tract, including the mouth, esophagus, and stomach.
2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth
The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.
3. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus
After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.
4. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.
5. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion
Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
6. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.
7. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement
The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.
8. Major Structures of the Intestines
When the food you eat reaches your small intestine, it enters a war zone of enzymes that break it down into particles small enough to be absorbed into your cells. Learn about the divisions and parts of the small and large intestines.
9. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System
Your pancreas, liver and gallbladder are accessory organs that help with the chemical digestion of food. Learn about the enzymes and other chemicals produced and stored in these organs as well as how they help you break down the foods you eat.
10. Important Functions of Digestion & Related Terminology
Have you ever experienced borborygmus? What about peristalis? This lesson will let you know; it's filled with terminology related to the functions of digestion!
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Other chapters within the Medical Terminology: Help & Review course
- Fundamentals of Medical Terminology
- Basic Suffixes, Prefixes & Roots in Medical Terminology
- Terminology for Direction, Planes & Regions of the Body
- Pathology Basics & Vocabulary
- Vocabulary Basics for Genetics, Cells & Structures
- Medical Terms for the Lymphatic & Immune Systems
- Oncology Basics & Terms
- Medical Terminology for the Skeletal System
- Vocabulary for the Muscular System & Its Functions
- Vocabulary for the Cardiovascular System
- Terminology for the Respiratory System, Diseases & Treatments
- Terminology for Diagnosis & Treatment of Respiratory Diseases
- Terms for GI Tract Pathologies
- GI Tract Diagnosis & Treatment Terminology
- Medical Terms for the Urinary System
- Terminology of the Nervous System
- Terms for Nervous System-Related Conditions
- Terminology for Diagnostics & Treatments of the Nervous System
- Medical Terms Related to the Eyes
- Medical Terminology Related to the Ears
- Terminology for the Integumentary System
- Terminology for The Endocrine System & Hormones
- Endocrine Gland Disorder Vocabulary
- Pancreatic Disorder Vocabulary
- Adrenal Gland Disorder Terminology
- Male Reproductive System & STDs: Medical Terminology
- Female Reproductive System: Medical Terminology
- Medical Terminology for Major Pathogens
- Medical Terminology Used for Diagnosis & Pharmacology