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- Learn about the heresies and inquisitions of the High Middle Ages.
- Discuss the Church reforms brought about by St. Francis.
- Explain how the spread of ancient knowledge impacted the Church.
- Describe the characteristics of Gothic architecture, painting and sculpture.
- Understand the impact mechanical clocks had on Western civilization.
- Learn what the Mongolians contributed to Western civilization.
- Explain the role guilds played in Western economies.
- Discuss the relationships between the Middle Age royals of France and England.
- Describe the power struggles between popes and emperors in the Holy Roman Empire.
- Examine what daily life was like for English peasants.
1. Heresies and Inquisitions in the High Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages the term heresy referred to religious beliefs that were in disagreement with an established Christian doctrine. This lesson explores the often violent results of the growing popularity of heretical beliefs in the High Middle Ages.
2. Mendicants: St. Francis and Church Reforms
Catholicism spread throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. In response to growing power and separation from urban middle-class citizens, mendicants lived in poverty and reached out to the poor. This lesson explores the orders formed by the mendicants.
3. The Spread of Ancient Knowledge and Its Impact on the Church
Classical knowledge comes from ancient cultures like the Greeks and Romans. When Christians fought in the Crusades, they discovered some of these texts. This lesson explores the impact of classical learning on the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.
4. The Rise of Universities and Displacement of Monasteries
Before the Middle Ages, education was the responsibility of the Church. As the need for education spread to those who were not clergy, monasteries could no longer meet the needs of education. This lesson explores the decline of monastic education and the rise of the university.
5. The Magna Carta & The Constitutions of Clarendon: Definition & Significance
In the High Middle Ages, rulers fought for supreme power. This lesson explores two of the earliest documents to limit power of an authority figure, whether it was the pope or a king.
6. Charter of the Forest and the Provisions of Oxford: Definition & Significance
In the High Middle Ages several charters were created that limited the authority of ruling powers. This lesson explores two of these charters, both of which limited the authority of the king of England.
7. Gothic Architecture: Style, Characteristics & History
This lesson covers the three main features of Gothic architecture: the pointed arch, the rib vault and the flying buttress. We then look at a slideshow of examples of the Gothic style around Europe.
8. Gothic Sculpture and Stained Glass Windows: Characteristics & Style
In this lesson, we cover the development of Gothic architectural decoration, specifically decorative sculpture and stained glass windows. You'll learn about Gothic use of stained glass and the evolution of sculpture from Romanesque decoration to Gothic statues.
9. Gothic Painting: Style & Characteristics
This lesson follows the development of two trends in Gothic painting: realism and perspective. We explore the origins of these movements in Italian Gothic masters, like Duccio, Giotto and the Lorenzetti Brothers, and their later expression in Northern European illuminations.
10. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.
11. Frederick II: King and Emperor
Fredrick II was responsible for gaining control of many lands in Germany and Italy under the Holy Roman Empire. This lesson explores the background of the story and Frederick's accomplishments.
12. The Invention and Impact of Mechanical Clocks
Timekeeping has been a part of society since Ancient Egypt. This lesson briefly explores the history of clocks and the impact of the mechanical clock on medieval society.
13. Mongolians and Their Contributions to Western Civilization
This lesson covers the contributions of the Mongols to Western civilization. We begin by examining the tale of Marco Polo. Next, we look at some common misconceptions about the Mongols. Finally, we enumerate the many technologies brought to Europe by this group.
14. Guilds in Western Culture and Economies in the High Middle Ages
Medieval guilds provided standards for production and protected their members from oppression. This lesson explores why guilds developed in the High Middle Ages.
15. Middle Age Royals of England and France
The life of a High Middle Ages's king was filled with conflict. This lesson explores some of the major kings of England and France and their relations with each other and their powerful nobles.
16. Power Struggles of the Holy Roman Empire: Popes vs. Emperors
The High Middle Ages was characterized by constant struggles for power. This lesson explores fighting between the papacy, Germany, and Italy for authority over the Holy Roman Empire.
17. The Daily Life of English Peasants
Peasants of the Middle Age faced a very harsh life. This lesson explores the typical lifestyle for an English peasant in the 11th through 13th centuries, including the daily tasks they performed.
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