About This Chapter
The Lithosphere - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll review key topics related to the lithosphere, such as ocean drilling, plate boundaries, sea floor spreading, and much more. After completing the chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Demonstrate understanding of Pangaea
- Detail how plate tectonics explains change on the surface of the Earth
- Discuss Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift
- Review evidence of continental drift
- Point out the major plates and the causes of tectonic plate movement
- Examine plate boundaries, including convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries
- Understand how ocean drilling, paleomagnetism, and hot spots provide evidence for plate tectonics
- Detail the link between sea floor spreading and polar reversal
These brief and informative video lessons last 5-10 minutes on average, and include engaging illustrations and plenty of real-world examples. Each lesson includes a short multiple-choice quiz to test your knowledge. The quizzes link back to specific topics in the video, so if you get a question wrong it's easy to look up that particular topic.
1. What is Pangaea? - Theory & Definition
The continents you know have existed for a long time, but not in their current locations. In fact, over 200 million years ago Pangaea broke apart by plate tectonic movement to form the continents we see today.
2. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
After many years of trying to solve the mystery of the moving continents, enough data and evidence was collected to develop a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. It's called plate tectonics.
3. Alfred Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift
People used to think that Earth was static, and that it never changed. Gradually, a body of evidence was gathered that made no sense in this model. Alfred Wegener, Geologic Supersleuth, laid the groundwork for a whole new theory for the large-scale changing nature of the earth.
4. Evidence for the Mechanism of Continental Drift
As scientists began to explore the ocean floor after World War II, they discovered many new clues to help them solve a mystery that had begun decades earlier - how the continents moved about on the surface of the earth.
5. Major Plates of the Lithosphere: Earth's Tectonic Plates
The outer shell of the earth, the lithosphere, is broken up into tectonic plates. The seven major plates are the African plate, Antarctic plate, Eurasian plate, Indo-Australian plate, North American plate, Pacific plate and South American plate.
6. Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement
In this lesson, we explore the causes of plate movement, including thermal convection, ridge push and slab pull. Students will learn how these processes complement each other and form a theory for tectonic plate movement.
7. Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, and Transform Boundaries
In the theory of plate tectonics, the earth's crust is broken into plates that move around relative to each other. As a result of this movement, three types of plate boundaries are formed: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries.
8. Ocean Drilling as Evidence for Plate Tectonics
The Deep Sea Drilling Project extracted samples of the ocean floor that provided evidence to support the hypothesis of seafloor spreading and the theory of plate tectonics. Learn how these samples provided proof.
9. Paleomagnetism and Hot Spots: Evidence for Plate Tectonics
Paleomagnetism is the study of past magnetic fields. Hot spots are fixed pockets of heat that well up to form volcanic features. Learn how paleomagnetism and the study of hot spots provide evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics.
10. Sea Floor Spreading and Polar Reversal
Sea floor spreading is the process by which new oceanic crust is formed by the upwelling of magma through diverging tectonic plates. Learn about the relationship between sea floor spreading and polar reversals detected on the ocean floor.
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Other chapters within the AP Environmental Science: Exam Prep course
- Environmental Science Basics
- Time & Dating in Geology
- Understanding Earthquakes
- The Atmosphere and the Environment
- Weather and Storms
- Water Balance
- Flowing Water
- Ground Water Systems
- Oceanic Systems & Characteristics
- Life Cycle of Glaciers
- Water Issues & Conservation
- Minerals, Rocks & Soil
- Interaction Among Organisms in the Ecosystem
- Evolving Ecosystems
- Changing Ecosystems
- Population and the Environment
- Food and Agricultural Resources
- Forestry, Rangelands & Other Land Use
- Mining & Fishing
- Energy Concepts
- Renewable Energy Resources
- Nonrenewable Energy Sources
- Waste Management
- Effects of Humans on the Environment
- Sustaining the Environment
- Environmental Risk Analysis
- Global Environmental Economics
- Environmental Ethics & Politics