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- Discuss the new agricultural technologies that developed during the Medieval Warm Period.
- Explain how the return of the crossbow affected Europe.
- Describe the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Learn about the Investiture Controversy.
- Take a look at the decisions made by the 4 Lateran councils.
- Describe the characteristics of Romanesque art and architecture.
- Explain the causes and effects of the First Crusade.
- Understand the impact the Crusades had on the West.
- Learn why towns and commerce reemerged.
1. The Medieval Warm Period and New Agricultural Technologies
In this lesson, we explore the factors that brought about Europe's Medieval Agricultural Revolution. We look at the climate of Europe and the key agricultural technologies and techniques that revolutionized agriculture: the heavy plow, the horse collar & the three field crop rotation system.
2. The Return of the Crossbow and its Implications for Europe
This lesson looks at the return of the crossbow to Medieval Europe. The relative cost of crossbows to armored knights is explored, as are the socioeconomic repercussions of each.
3. The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches
This lesson will define and explain the Great Schism, which led to the formation of Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. In doing so, it will highlight the political and cultural factors that led to the the great divide.
4. William the Conqueror & Politics and Art in the Dark Ages
This lesson will explore the life and deeds of William the Conqueror. In exploring the political backdrop of the Dark Ages, it will highlight the Battle of Hastings, the Bayeux Tapestry, and the Domesday Book.
5. The Roman Catholic Clergy
This lesson will list and describe the different members of the Medieval clergy. Beginning at the lower levels and ending with the Pope, it will outline the duties of each office.
6. The Investiture Conflict: Rulers vs. the Centralized Church
This lesson will explore the Investiture Conflict of the 11th and 12th centuries. In doing so, it will highlight the roles of Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. It will also explain the Concordat of Worms.
7. The 4 Lateran Councils: The Rules and Decisions
This lesson will discuss the Four Lateran Councils held between the years 1123 and 1215 CE. In doing so, it will explore and highlight the main themes and decisions of each.
8. Windmills, Water Wheels and Labor Savers in the Dark Ages
This lesson explores the advent of mechanized labor in Medieval Europe. We note the frenzied pace of wind and watermill construction in Europe. We examine the causes of this phenomenon and hypothesize on its implications.
9. Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France
This lesson will explore the reigns of the Angevin Plantagenet kings of England, Henry II, Richard I, and John. It will also highlight their dealings with Philip Augustus of France.
10. Thomas Becket and the Constitutions of Clarendon
This lesson will explain the power struggle between Church and State in medieval England. It will focus on King Henry II, Thomas Becket, and the Constitutions of Clarendon.
11. Romanesque Art: History, Characteristics & Style
This lesson covers the explosion of Romanesque art in the 11th century. We briefly explore the causes behind this movement. Then we look at the two most notable forms of Romanesque art: sculptural decoration and stained glass windows. Finally, we examine the emergence of medieval secular art.
12. Romanesque Architecture: Characteristics, Examples & History
In this lesson we fly through the various characteristics of Romanesque architecture: the semicircular arch, various sorts of vaulting, heavier construction, and the addition of increasingly intricate exteriors incorporating towers, arcades, and decorative sculpture.
13. The First Crusade: Causes and Effects
This lesson covers the motivations of Pope Urban II in calling for the crusade at Clermont and at the religious and secular motivations of European laymen. We will also look at the startling success of the first crusade.
14. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
15. Results and Impact of the Crusades
This lesson explores the results and impact of the Crusades. We examine the social impact, the political impact and the economic impact of three centuries of crusading.
16. The Reemergence of Towns and Commerce
This lesson explores the urban revolution of the 12th century. We will examine the causes, especially the resurgence of trade, and then look at the various factors that made the revolution possible. Finally, we will discuss the impact of this revolution on Medieval Europe.
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