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The Molecular and Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
You probably already know that chromosomes are part of the building blocks that create humans. You also have probably heard that chromosomes can be responsible for certain traits that we each have. These lessons will teach you about the chromosomal basis of inheritance at the molecular level. Let our instructors lead you through lessons on:
- The chemical structure of nucleic acids & phosphodiester bonds
- The double helix structure of DNA
- Types of RNA
- DNA Replication
- The chromosome theory of inheritance
- An overview of meiosis
|DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds||Discover nucleic acids, nucleotides and the formation of polynucleotides.|
|DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing||Study nitrogenous bases, adenine, complementary base pairing and more.|
|DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule||Learn more about James Watson, Francis Crick and the Watson - Crick model of nucleic acids.|
|Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA) and Differences from DNA||Explore concepts like single-stranded RNA, uracil, ribose.|
|The Central Dogma||Examine how information from genes gets to proteins.|
|DNA Replication I: Discovery of the Mechanism||Analyze ideas such as semi-conservative replication, conservative replication and dispersive replication.|
|DNA Replication: The Replication Complex||Discover how replication fork, DNA helicase, DNA gyrase and DNA polymerase relate to DNA replication.|
|DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities||Learn about primase, primer, leading strand and the proofreading function.|
|DNA Replication III: The Lagging Strand||Study concepts including the Okazaki fragment and DNA ligase.|
|Protein Synthesis 1: Transcription||Explore vocabulary that includes promoter, initiation, elongation, termination, sense strand and antisense strand.|
|Prokaryotic Transcription||Discover prokaryotic transcription and ideas that include gene expression, operon, promoter, operator, repressor and inducer.|
|Regulation of Eukaryotic Transcription||Analyze concepts and vocabulary related to the regulation of eukaryotic transcription, such as promoter, TATA box, enhancer, transcription factor, transcription factor binding site, combinatorial regulation and methylation.|
|Eukaryotic mRNA Processing||Find out what intron, exon, pre-mRNA, 5' cap, poly(A) tail, splicing, spliceosome and post-transcriptional regulation have to do with eukaryotic mRNA processing.|
|The Genetic Code||Examine the Genetic Code and ideas such as codon, start codon, stop codon, redundant, transfer RNA and anticodon.|
|Protein Synthesis 3: Translation||Explore the translation phase of protein synthesis and learn about translation, messenger RNA, ribosome, initiation and more.|
|Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure||Discover how the terms recap primary, detail on secondary, alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, tertiary, quaternary and disulfide bond relate to protein structure.|
|Posttranslational Modification and Control of Gene Expression||Learn more about cleavage, phosphorylation, kinase and ubiquitination.|
|The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance||Analyze how inheritance is affected by chromosomes through studying concepts that include segregation and independent assortment.|
|Mitosis I: The Mitotic Spindle||Study terms such as centrosome, centriole, centromere, kinetochore and mitotic spindle.|
|Mitosis II: Phases of Chromosome Segregation||Explore the phases of chromosome segregation, which include prophase, premetaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cohesion.|
|Overview of Meiosis||Learn more about meiosis through learning about concepts like crossing-over and homologous recombination.|
|Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division||Find out about reductional cell division and prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I.|
|Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division||Study the prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II and cytokinesis in relation to cell division.|
|Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy||Analyze nondisjunction and aneuploidy, including trisomy and monsomy.|
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
6. How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication
How does semi-conservative replication begin? Discover how DNA helicase creates a replication fork to unwind the complicated DNA molecule and allow daughter strands to form on the parental template.
7. How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication
How do enzymes assist in starting DNA replication? In this lesson, we explore the work of a contributing enzyme, DNA polymerase, and learn how the RNA primer is made by the action of RNA primase.
8. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities
How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.
9. DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands
Feeling lost in the thorny details of DNA replication? This lesson provides an overview of semi-conservative replication, with a focus on putting together all of the concepts involved. We'll review the work of each enzyme on our way to completing the big picture of DNA replication.
10. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
11. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
12. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
13. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
14. Examples of Transcription Regulation in Eukaryotes
Transcription is more complicated than just turning a gene 'on' or 'off' like a light switch. In this lesson, you'll learn how eukaryotic transcription is regulated through the use of DNA regulatory regions, DNA methylation, and chromatin modification.
15. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
16. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
17. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
18. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
19. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
20. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
21. Post translational Modifications of Proteins
Just because a polypeptide has been translated from an mRNA sequence, doesn't mean the protein is complete. In this lesson, you'll learn about possible post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, glycosylation, and cleavage.
22. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Segregation and Independent Assortment
Mendel proposed the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment to explain the inheritance behind his pea plant traits. A hundred years later, Boveri and Sutton developed the chromosome theory of inheritance, which stated that chromosomes were responsible for the heredity Mendel observed. Learn about these men and their ideas in this lesson.
23. Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
24. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
25. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
26. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
27. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
28. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
29. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
30. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
31. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
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