About This Chapter
The Molecular & Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - Chapter Summary
Our lessons in this chapter examine the basics of inheritance, including the chemical and physical structure of DNA. Learn about types of RNA and models of DNA replication. See what happens when helicase unwinds the DNA double helix and look at what initiates DNA replication.
Other lessons discuss transcription regulation in eukaryotes and the definition and uses of genetic engineering. You'll also learn about uses and problems with DNA technology. After completing all these lessons, you should be able to:
- State the chemical structures of nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds
- Discuss adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and complementary base pairing
- Describe the double helix structure and hereditary molecule of DNA
- Report on the types of RNA and list differences in RNA and DNA
- Describe the DNA replication process and the conservative, semi-conservative and dispersive models of DNA replication
- Explain the practical uses for DNA technology and associated safety concerns
These lessons are led by expert instructors who make learning fun, while teaching you what you need to know. Each lesson is accompanied by quizzes that let you test your knowledge. If you need to review certain parts of the lesson, the timeline's jump feature makes it quick to go back to that specific topic without re-watching the whole lesson.
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
6. How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication
How does semi-conservative replication begin? Discover how DNA helicase creates a replication fork to unwind the complicated DNA molecule and allow daughter strands to form on the parental template.
7. How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication
How do enzymes assist in starting DNA replication? In this lesson, we explore the work of a contributing enzyme, DNA polymerase, and learn how the RNA primer is made by the action of RNA primase.
8. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities
How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.
9. DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands
Feeling lost in the thorny details of DNA replication? This lesson provides an overview of semi-conservative replication, with a focus on putting together all of the concepts involved. We'll review the work of each enzyme on our way to completing the big picture of DNA replication.
10. Examples of Transcription Regulation in Eukaryotes
Transcription is more complicated than just turning a gene 'on' or 'off' like a light switch. In this lesson, you'll learn how eukaryotic transcription is regulated through the use of DNA regulatory regions, DNA methylation, and chromatin modification.
11. Genetic Engineering & DNA Plasmid
This lesson will discuss what a GMO is, and how DNA plasmids are used in genetic engineering. The lesson will include these important features of plasmids: a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.
12. Practical Applications & Safety Concerns of DNA Technology
Our discovery of DNA was a big deal, but what technologies has it led to? And could they be dangerous? Learn about DNA technology, and then test your knowledge with a quiz.
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Other chapters within the MCAT Test: Practice and Study Guide course
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- Genetic Variability & Mutation
- Analytic Methods in Genetics
- Evolution & Natural Selection
- Development of Vertebrates
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- Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis & Metabolic Regulation
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- Prokaryotic Cells
- Cell Biology & Cell Cycle
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- Circulatory System Overview
- Lymphatic System
- Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems
- Digestive System Functions & Organs
- Urinary Systems & Structures
- Muscle and Skeletal Systems
- Respiratory System
- Skin System
- Human Reproductive Systems
- Reproductive Sequence
- Translational Motion
- Force, Motion & Gravitation
- Equilibrium and Momentum
- Work and Energy
- Principles of Fluids
- Gas Laws
- Electrostatics & Magnetism
- Electronic Circuit Elements
- Light & Geometrical Optics
- Atomic Structure and Components
- Atomic Nucleus
- Electronic Structure
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Stoichiometric Calculations
- Acids and Bases Overview
- Solution Chemistry
- Molecular Bonding
- Phase Equilibria
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
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- Human Senses
- Human Attention & Cognition
- States of Human Consciousness
- Characterizing Language Development
- Genetics, Evolution & Environmental Influences on Behavior
- Prenatal Development & Birth
- Principles of Motor Development, Learning & Control
- Development in the Adolescence Years
- Personality Components & Assessment
- Psychological Health & Disorders
- Motivation Types and Sources
- Attitude Types and Theories
- Types of Social Groups & Organizations
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- Learning and Conditioning
- Understanding the Self
- Prejudice & Discrimination
- Social Behavior
- Social Structure
- Families, Religions & Schools as Social Institutions
- Political & Economic Systems
- Health and Medicine
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