About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering introductory anthropology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn basic anthropology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the differences between real culture and ideal culture
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning social science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the nature of culture
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra social science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Nature of Culture chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Nature of Culture chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question on the nature of culture. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a nature of culture unit of a standard introductory anthropology course. Topics covered include:
- Levels of culture
- The difference between society and culture
- Cultural variation
- Etic and emic world views
- Mechanisms of cultural change
1. Levels of Culture: National, International & Subcultural
This lesson will focus on the different levels, or layers, of culture. In doing so, it will define culture. It will also explain the layers of international culture, national culture, and subculture.
2. Understanding the Difference Between Society & Culture
This lesson will seek to explain the difference between society and culture. In doing so, it will also highlight the concept of norms and what role they play in both society and culture.
3. Cultural Variation: Universalities, Generalities & Particularities
This lesson will seek to explain cultural traits which are considered universals, generalities, and particularities. In doing so, it will highlight the concept of culture and how it plays out around the globe.
4. Etic and Emic World Views in Anthropology
This lesson will seek to explain both the emic and etic approaches to studying culture. In doing so, it will contrast the use of member narratives and theories among the two very differing approaches.
5. Culture and the Individual: Real Culture vs. Ideal Culture
This lesson will seek to explain the difference between ideal and real culture. In doing so, it will give an example of each, while also defining the terms culture and norm.
6. Mechanisms of Cultural Change: Invention, Diffusion & Innovation
This lesson will seek to explain the concept of cultural change. In doing so, it will highlight the change mechanisms of invention and innovation. It will also explain the different types of diffusion.
7. Cultural Relativity, Ethnocentrism & the Rights of Humans
This lesson will seek to explain the concepts of ethnocentrism and cultural relativity. In doing so, it will also highlight the role human rights plays in the actual working out of these two concepts amid cultures.
8. Hofstede's Power Distance: Definition & Examples
The idea of power distance is an important cultural concept. In this lesson, you'll learn about what power distance is and how this knowledge is beneficial to you in your interactions with others.
9. Elements of Culture: Explanation of the Major Elements That Define Culture
Culture combines many elements to create a unique way of living for different people. In this lesson, we identify four of the elements that exist in every culture, albeit in different forms: symbols, language, values, and norms. We also differentiate between folkways and mores.
10. Narragansett Indians: History & Overview
How did the Narragansett Indians live and what happened when the English settled in their region? In this lesson, you'll learn the history of the Narragansett and how they interacted with the colonists. Afterward, test your knowledge with a short quiz.
11. The Iroquois League: Definition & History
The Iroquois were warriors who once fought with their neighbors and among themselves. Learn how and why these natives of the New World formed the Iroquois League and how it contributed to their survival.
12. What Is Cultural Syncretism? - Definition & Examples
Explore the anthropological concept of cultural syncretism and test your understanding about various world cultures, the history of human interaction, and basic principles of anthropology.
13. What is Human Nature? - Definition, Theories & Examples
In this lesson, you will read about major theories that have developed from considering the behaviors and characteristics of humans that have influenced world cultures. Then you can test your knowledge with a quiz.
14. Cultural Determinism: Definition and Theory
How much does your culture affect who you are? In this lesson, we'll look at the theory of cultural determinism and see how it suggests our personalities and behaviors are sculpted by our culture.
15. Cultural Milieu: Definition & Explanation
This lesson provides examples of cultural milieus and how sociologists use this term to help understand society. After the lesson, you will check your knowledge of the concept with a quiz.
16. Cultural Relativism in Sociology: Definition, Argument & Examples
In Bolivia, 14-year-old girls can legally get married. In China, men have to wait until they're 22. Why is there such a variance in what's acceptable and what's not? Cultural relativism explains why one society shouldn't try to impose its own beliefs onto another.
17. Cultural Studies: Definition, Theory & Methodologies
Through this lesson, you will learn about the interdisciplinary field of cultural studies, gain insight into the theories and concepts on which it is based, and explore a brief introduction to the methodologies used to collect data.
18. Culture: Definition & Meaning
In this lesson, we'll cover what sociologists and anthropologists are referring to when they use the term culture. You'll also learn about the elements that create a culture.
19. Degradation Ceremony: Definition and Examples
Did you know that lawyers participate in degradation ceremonies as a part of their occupation? Learn more about degradation ceremonies through several examples, including the perp walk.
20. Enculturation: Definition & Examples
Enculturation refers to the process by which we learn about our culture. Learn all about enculturation from different examples and then test your knowledge with a quiz in this lesson.
21. Ethnocentricity: Definition & Examples
Ethnocentricity is the belief that your own cultural or ethnic group is superior to that of another. Learn more about ethnocentricity from examples. Then, test your knowledge with a quiz.
22. Ethnocentrism in Sociology: Definition & Examples
Have you ever taken a first look at someone different than you and immediately thought, 'He's a bad guy,' or 'I don't like him,' even though you had no specific reason? Sure, you don't have to like everyone you meet; however, if you assign a negative label to anyone different from you without reason, then ethnocentrism might be at play!
23. Folkways in Sociology: Definition, Patterns & Examples
Explore the essential element of culture known as folkways. In this lesson, you'll learn about this type of social norm and the patterns associated with folkways. Then you can test your knowledge with a quiz.
24. Ideal Culture: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we will discuss the concept of ideal culture. We will define ideal culture, learn how ideal culture differs from real culture, and see examples of ideal culture in American society.
25. Mundugumor Tribe: Culture & Overview
Study the Papua, New Guinea, tribe called the Mundugumor and learn about its traditions, culture and history. At the end of the lesson, test your understanding with a quiz.
26. Nonmaterial Culture: Definition, Components & Examples
Did you know that there are seven components to non-material culture? Learn more about non-material culture from examples. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
27. Real Culture: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we will discuss real culture. Learn more about real culture and how it differs from ideal culture through examples, then test your knowledge with a quiz.
28. Tchambuli Tribe: Culture & Gender Roles
This lesson describes the culture, gender roles, and some of the traditions of the Tchambuli tribe. This tribe's village is located in Papua New Guinea, where they continue to practice many of their cultural traditions.
29. Deviant Subcultures: Definition & Types
Deviant subcultures have existed as long as there have been social and culture standards. Through this lesson, you will learn what defines a deviant subculture and explore some of the different types that exist in society.
30. Nigerian Ethnic Groups
While Nigeria has numerous ethnic groups, the three major tribes we'll discuss today are the Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, and Yoruba. We'll discuss their religious and political influences in Nigeria and traditions unique to each one.
31. Objectified Cultural Capital
Did you know that books, instruments, and movies are all examples of objectified cultural capital? Learn more about objectified cultural capital from this lesson.
32. Slavoj Zizek: Quotes & Ideology
In this lesson, we'll talk about the philosopher Slavoj Zizek's writings on ideology. We'll talk about what he means by this and look at some famous quotes.
33. The Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity
In this lesson, you will learn about the meaning, origins, and creator of the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity. You will learn about the experiment of this test and be given sample questions. Following the lesson will be a brief quiz.
34. Embodied Cultural Capital
Did you know that the knowledge you will gain from reading this lesson is an example of embodied cultural capital? Learn more about embodied cultural capital from this lesson, including what it is and some examples of it.
35. Ethnic Groups in Afghanistan
In this lesson, we'll talk about the ethnic groups of Afghanistan, a large land-locked nation in South Asia. There are many ethnic groups in this populous country, so we'll focus on the three largest.
36. Ethnic Groups in Africa
In this lesson, we'll explore some of the largest ethnic groups on the continent of Africa. We'll also give population numbers and locations as well as some key details of each particular group.
37. Ethnic Groups in Argentina
The country of Argentina is second only to the US for its immigrant population. This lesson explores how Argentina became a mixed-race society and a melting pot of different ethnicities.
38. Ethnic Groups in Brazil
Brazil is the largest country in South America and has the sixth largest population in the world, mostly due to immigration. Because of this, it has a very diverse make up with many nationalities.
39. Ethnic Groups in China
In this lesson, we will discuss some of the various ethnic groups found in mainland China, including where they tend to be found, what sort of religious affiliations they may have, and a brief description of their lifestyles.
40. Ethnic Groups in Egypt
In this lesson, we will talk about a few of the different ethnic groups in Egypt, a country in North Africa with one of the oldest civilizations in the world.
41. Ethnic Groups in France
France controlled one of the largest empires in history and consequently has many diverse ethnicities living there today. In this lesson, you'll learn about the larger ethnic groups residing in France today.
42. Ethnic Groups in India
India has been the most ethnically diverse nation on Earth for many centuries, with over two thousand different ethnic groups. Ethnic categories exist based on language, religion, geographical ancestry, and other factors.
43. Ethnic Groups in Latin America
Latin America has several nations and many ethnic groups. We will focus on the seven primary ethnic groups in this lesson - which include Native, European, African, and Asian cultures - and what they bring to Latin America as we know it today.
44. Mexican Ethnic Groups: Percentages & Demographics
Mexico has a large population, and a diverse one. In this lesson, we are going to explore ethnic identity in Mexico and see how the demographics of the nation reflects its history.
45. Ethnic Groups in South Africa
In this lesson, we'll talk about some of the major ethnic groups in South Africa. We'll discuss some of the important social and political history associated with these various ethnic groups, including the legacy of apartheid and its impact on different groups in South Africa.
46. Ethnic Groups in Spain
This lesson provides a brief overview of the origins and languages of the four major ethnic groups present in Spain: Basque, Galician, Castilian, and Catalan.
47. Ethnic Groups: Definition, List & Examples
Ethnicity can be a challenging or confusing concept to describe. Through this lesson, you will learn a broad definition of ethnicity and explore some of the components that are used to comprise and identify different ethnic groups.
48. Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism
Culture is the glue that binds people together in society. It can include norms, values, symbols, and more. In this lesson, explore the two major ways in which people encounter other cultures: ethnocentrism or cultural relativism.
49. European Ethnic Groups
Across the continent of Europe, there are many ethnic groups that inhabit its countries. Through this lesson, you will explore a few of those groups from different parts of Europe.
50. Institutionalized Cultural Capital
Did you know that a bachelor's degree is a form of institutionalized cultural capital? Learn more about institutionalized cultural capital and how it is related to social mobility. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
51. Iranian Ethnic Groups
Iran is a country made up of many different people. This includes Persians, Azeris, Kurds, Lur, Baloch, Arabs, and Turkmen. Find out a little bit about all of these different ethnic groups.
52. Iraqi Ethnic Groups
This lesson explores the three largest ethnic groups in contemporary Iraq: Arabs, Kurds, and Turkmens. We'll talk about some of their similarities and differences in religion, language, and culture.
53. Japanese Subcultures: List & Descriptions
This lesson will take a brief look at a few of the many subcultures in Japan, and their origins in fashion and pop culture. It will also touch on some regional cultural trends.
54. Louisiana French, Haitian & Jamaican Creoles: People & Differences
A creole is a type of language that is formed from a combination of pre-existing dialects. Modern creoles are languages capable of serving as everyday forms of communication. This lesson explores the differences among some of the most common creoles one may encounter in the Western Hemisphere.
55. Materialism & Material Culture: Definitions & Examples
Our lives and environments are filled with objects and material goods, but how often do we really consider what they mean? Learn about the role of objects in cultures and societies, and explore examples of their significance.
56. What is Grunge Subculture?
In this lesson you'll learn the definition of the grunge subculture, where grunge came from, and who first coined the term 'grunge.' You'll also learn the origins of the grunge subculture and go over some of its music. Following the lesson will be a brief quiz to test your new knowledge.
57. What is Heavy Metal Subculture?
In this lesson, you will learn about the music, history, mentality and appearance of the heavy metal subculture. Following the lesson will be a brief quiz to test your knowledge.
58. What is Hip Hop Subculture?
In this lesson, you will learn about hip hop music and the defining characteristics of the hip hop subculture. You will learn about the history, fashion, and values of this subculture as well.
59. What is Rave Subculture?
In this lesson, learn the definition of the rave subculture and the importance of its secret and underground nature. You will learn its history dating back to the 1980s, including the music, customs, drugs, and style of dress associated with it.
60. What is the Bodybuilding Subculture?
Who were the first bodybuilders? Learn about the history of this sport and how bodybuilders evolved into a subculture of their own. Then test yourself on your knowledge.
61. What is the Emo Subculture?
In this lesson, you'll learn about the main components of the emo subculture. You'll explore the history, musical influences, and fashion of youth in the emo subculture. Following the lesson will be a brief quiz to test your new knowledge.
62. What is the Goth Subculture?
This lesson guides you through the defining characteristics, history, influences, fashion, and beliefs of the Goth subculture. Following this lesson is a brief quiz to test your new knowledge.
63. What is the Greaser Subculture?
In this lesson, you will learn about the characteristics, history, influences and appearance of the greaser subculture. Following the lesson will be a brief quiz to test your new knowledge.
64. What is the Hipster Subculture?
In this lesson, we will learn what a hipster is, and the history, ideas, and style of dress of this subculture. We will also explore the criticisms against them, including claims of their inauthenticity.
65. What is the Mod Subculture?
In this lesson you'll learn the definition, history, activities, music preference, and style of dress of the mod subculture. You will also learn about the clash of mod and rocker subcultures.
66. What is the Preppy Subculture?
In this lesson, you will learn the defining characteristics, history, fashion, and activities of the preppy subculture. You will also about some characteristics and qualities that are associated with people in this subculture.
67. What is the Vampire Subculture?
In this lesson, you will learn about the little studied but nonetheless real subculture of the modern vampire. Read about some of the defining characteristics of this group of people, then take a short quiz.
68. Xenocentrism: Definition & Role in Sociology
In this lesson, we will define the concept of xenocentrism, articulate its use as a concept in sociology, and explain the relationship between xenocentrism and cultural relativism. To check your learning of these concepts, please refer to the quiz questions after this lesson.
69. Dominant Ideology: Definition & Examples
Dominant ideologies have a considerable influence on our daily lives, and they can be simple or very complicated. Through this lesson, you will learn how to define a dominant ideology and explore some theories and examples from various societies.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Anthropology: Help and Review course
- Introduction to Anthropology: Help and Review
- Anthropology Perspectives: Help and Review
- DNA and Cell Division: Help and Review
- Genetics for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- Evolution for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- DNA Mutations: Help and Review
- Physical Anthropology: Help and Review
- Geologic Time and Anthropology: Help and Review
- Anthropology & Ancient History: Help and Review
- Human and Cultural Migrations: Help and Review
- People and the Environment: Help and Review
- Agriculture & Domestication: Help and Review
- Ethnicity and Geography
- Studying Land Resources in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Art History and Anthropology: Help and Review
- Language and Communication in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Spatial Processes
- Settlement Patterns in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Societies in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Economic Systems in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Family Relationships in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Political Organization in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Religion in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Applications of Anthropology: Help and Review