Ch 17: Terminology of the Nervous System

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons on the human nervous system to learn about its components and function. Each lesson is accompanied by a short multiple-choice quiz to help check your understanding of the nervous system.

The Nervous System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

There's no understating the importance of the human nervous system. It's involved in your ability to mentally and physically respond to the environment as well as carry out essential functions like breathing and digestion. The lessons in this chapter provide a detailed overview of the structures and activities of the nervous system; you'll learn about:

  • What roles the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems play in the body
  • How neurons function
  • What kinds of diseases affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  • How nervous system conditions are diagnosed and treated
  • What causes mental health disorders
  • How mental health disorders are treated

VideoObjective
What is the Nervous System? - Structure & TerminologyFind out what parts make up the nervous system and how they work together in the body.
The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous SystemsExamine the differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Functions of the Nervous SystemLearn about how the nervous system collects, interprets, and responds to sensory input.
The Structure and Function of NeuronsExplore the anatomy of neurons and how they transmit signals in the body.
Neuroglia: Function & Definition Identify the neuroglia and its purpose in the nervous system.
Pathologies of the Meninges & HeadGet info on types of headaches and what causes conditions like meningitis.
Diseases of the Brain & Related TerminologyDiscover how Alzheimer's disease, stroke, tumors, and other brain conditions affect patients' functioning.
Terminology for Epilepsy & Sensation ConditionsSee what causes epileptic seizures as well as dysfunctional sensations in the body.
Disease of the Spinal Cord and NervesFind out how diseases like ALS and Bell's Palsy impact the nerves and spinal cord.
Cranial Nerve Terminology Define different parts of the cranial nerve.
Spinal Nerves: Terminology Identify various spinal nerves and their roles.

22 Lessons in Chapter 17: Terminology of the Nervous System
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

1. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.

The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

2. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!

Functions of the Nervous System

3. Functions of the Nervous System

In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!

What is a Nerve? - Definition & Associated Terminology

4. What is a Nerve? - Definition & Associated Terminology

This lesson defines and explains what nerves are as well as associated terminology: neurons, receptors, impulse, stimulus, ascending and descending nerve tracts, ganglion, and plexus.

The Structure and Function of Neurons

5. The Structure and Function of Neurons

In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.

What is a Neuron? - Definition, Parts & Function

6. What is a Neuron? - Definition, Parts & Function

What are the parts of a neuron? You'll watch Neuron Garciaparra work up a sweat as he throws baseballs to demonstrate the structures and functions of the billions of neurons that reside in your body.

Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More

7. Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More

There are many types of neurons in your body that help you see, smell, hear, and move. In this lesson, you'll learn more about afferent, efferent, sensory, and motor neurons.

Neuroglia: Function & Definition

8. Neuroglia: Function & Definition

In this lesson, you'll learn about the unsung heroes of your nervous system. These cells don't get a lot of attention, but without them, it would be difficult for your neurons to do their job and protect themselves against invaders.

The Myelin Sheath, Schwann Cells & Nodes of Ranvier

9. The Myelin Sheath, Schwann Cells & Nodes of Ranvier

The myelin sheath is an essential part of our nervous system. Learn more about this neuron component, explore the nodes of Ranvier, and discover why Schwann cells are crucial for neuron survival.

White Matter vs. Gray Matter: Difference & Medical Terms

10. White Matter vs. Gray Matter: Difference & Medical Terms

This lesson will define white matter vs. gray matter, explain why a color difference exists, and go over where each is found in the brain and spinal cord as well as their functions.

Gross Anatomy of the Human Brain: Major Anatomical Structures and Terminology

11. Gross Anatomy of the Human Brain: Major Anatomical Structures and Terminology

In this video, you'll find out how and why we divide our brain into major sections. It's not just random names and games. You'll learn about where these divisions occur, what we call them, and what they separate.

The Brain Hemispheres: Left Brain/Right Brain Communication and Control

12. The Brain Hemispheres: Left Brain/Right Brain Communication and Control

Ever heard of a split personality? How about a split brain? Well, we can't be sure about the personality one, but brains can be split in two! In this lesson, you'll learn that and much more on how the brain communicates within itself.

Parts of the Brain

13. Parts of the Brain

Is there a way to easily remember the many parts of the brain? Don't be afraid of all these complex terms; this lesson outlines some easy and fun phrases to help you memorize the brain's anatomy. Let's take a look.

Brain Structures and Functions Part I

14. Brain Structures and Functions Part I

The brain's complexity can often be difficult to understand because it serves so many important functions. In this lesson, you'll get a little help from Nrr, the alien biologist, who will guide you through understanding the structure and functions of the human brain.

The Cerebral Cortex: Brain Structures and Functions Part II

15. The Cerebral Cortex: Brain Structures and Functions Part II

Check out this video lesson to learn about the four lobes of the human brain - the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. You'll learn about the functions and processes of each region.

The Layers of the Meninges: Medical Vocabulary

16. The Layers of the Meninges: Medical Vocabulary

This lesson will cover the three layers of the meninges and important (potential) spaces between them. You'll learn about dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater, arachnoid granulations and other vocabulary related to the meninges.

Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Brain: Functions & Production

17. Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Brain: Functions & Production

In this lesson, you'll learn that you have holes in your brain and that it's actually a good thing! You'll also find out how your brain uses a water cushion for protection and where this water cushion is made.

Parts of the Brain Stem Terminology: The Midbrain

18. Parts of the Brain Stem Terminology: The Midbrain

This lesson will briefly describe the brainstem and then go over the important functions of the midbrain. Key terms include: brainstem, mesencephalon, midbrain, corpora quadrigemina, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, substantia nigra, and red nuclei.

Parts of the Brain Stem: The Medulla Oblongata and Pons

19. Parts of the Brain Stem: The Medulla Oblongata and Pons

In this lesson, we'll learn how you are able to breathe without even thinking about it. You'll also find out why you breathe faster when you run. Finally, we'll learn where things as diverse as sneezing and blood pressure are controlled.

Spinal Cord Structure, Function & Terminology

20. Spinal Cord Structure, Function & Terminology

This lesson will go over the fundamental structure and function of the spinal cord. It will also cover the combining form that pertains to the spinal cord and delineate it from commonly confused combining forms.

Cranial Nerve Terminology

21. Cranial Nerve Terminology

This lesson will outline the core functions of the 12 cranial nerves: the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerve.

Spinal Nerves: Terminology

22. Spinal Nerves: Terminology

This lesson outlines the locations, names, and general functions of the spinal nerves related to the skin, muscles, joints, and internal organs as well as sensation.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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