About This Chapter
The Origin of the Universe - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Use the video lessons in this chapter to familiarize yourself with theories explaining the formation of the Earth and moon, as well as the early stages of life at both the cellular and molecular levels. Find out where these events fall on the timeline of Earth's history and learn about galaxy types and stages in a star's life cycle. At the end of this chapter, you should be familiar with the following:
- Evidence supporting the Big Bang theory
- Characteristics of primitive Earth
- Structure and life cycle of the sun
- Evolutionary patterns and adaptation periods
- Three major eons in Earth's history
|Origins of The Universe: The Big Bang and Expanding & Contracting Universes||Describes the Big Bang theory as a probable explanation for the formation of the universe.|
|The Origin of Life on Earth: Theories and Explanations||Depicts the four steps leading to early life on Earth, Oparin's hypothesis and the Miller-Urey experiment used to test it.|
|Evidence for the Big Bang Theory: Background Radiation, Red-Shift and Expansion||Identifies evidence that supports the Big Bang theory, such as background radiation, red-shift and expansion.|
|Galaxy Formation: Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular Galaxies||Describes the formation of elliptical, spiral and irregular types of galaxies, as well as proto-galaxies.|
|Formation of the Earth: Theories||Explains the physical processes contributing to the formation of the Earth's layers, water, atmosphere and land.|
|Formation of the Moon: Theories||Compares the capture, condensation, fission and giant impact theories used to describe the formation of the moon.|
|Structure of the Sun||Identifies the layers of the sun and describes how the fusion process keeps the sun stable.|
|Stages of the Sun's Life Cycle||Describes the life cycle of the sun from birth, to main sequence star, to white dwarf.|
|The Endosymbiosis Theory: Evolution of Cells||Outlines the theory explaining the evolution of eukaryotic cells and discusses the differences between these cell types and prokaryotic cells.|
|Evolutionary Change: Definition and Forms||Uses the concepts of catastrophism and gradualism to explain evolutionary patterns and adaptation periods.|
|The History of Life on Earth: Timeline and Characteristics of Major Eras||Identifies and describes the characteristics of major eras, including the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.|
1. Origins of the Universe: The Big Bang and Expanding & Contracting Universes
Students will learn the origins of the universe, the Big Bang theory, the timeline of the universe, how the universe is still expanding to this day, and what astronomers expect the universe to look like in the future.
2. The Origin of Life on Earth: Theories and Explanations
Ever wonder how living things came from non-living things? We will explore what conditions on early Earth may have created life from non-living items.
3. Evidence for the Big Bang Theory: Background Radiation, Red-Shift and Expansion
Discover what evidence exists to support the Big Bang theory of the birth of the universe. Learn how cosmic background radiation, the red shift of light and the ongoing expansion of the universe led scientists to believe that the universe was started with the Big Bang.
4. Galaxy Formation: Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular Galaxies
This lesson explains how galaxies form, starting with the Big Bang. You'll also learn about the solar nebula hypothesis and three galaxy types, including spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies.
5. Formation of the Earth: Theories
In this lesson, the theory of how the planet Earth formed will be discussed. This includes looking at how it differentiated into three layers, how it formed its atmosphere, water, and land features, and how it continues to evolve today.
6. Formation of the Moon: Theories
Explore the four major theories on the formation of the Moon. The theories include the fission theory, capture theory, condensation theory and giant impact theory. Also look at both information supporting and flaws found in these theories.
7. Structure of the Sun
Discover the layers of the sun, including the core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Find out which layers you can see from Earth. Investigate what sunspots and solar flares are.
8. Stages of the Sun's Life Cycle
Discover our sun, the provider of energy for life on Earth. Learn how the sun was born, how it lives as a main sequence star, how it will age into a red giant and how it will die as a white dwarf.
9. The Endosymbiosis Theory: Evolution of Cells
Ever wonder why some cells are very simple and others are complex with countless organelles to remember? We will look at how simple cells evolved to become more complex cells - as well as evidence to support this.
10. Evolutionary Change: Definition and Forms
You've probably heard of Charles Darwin and evolution. We know that evolution is change over time, but here we will look at how these changes may have occurred during Earth's history.
11. The History of Life on Earth: Timeline and Characteristics of Major Eras
The Earth is over 4 billion years old. Ever wonder what happened during certain time periods in that large amount of time? We will look at the major eons and eras of Earth's history along with important characteristics of each.
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Other chapters within the Fundamental Biology course
- Basic Terms & Skills in Biological Science
- Basic Science Lab Skills
- Inorganic Chemistry Review for High School Biology
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Enzyme Function, Interactions & Regulation
- Cell Biology
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Cell Communication
- Cellular Metabolism & Respiration
- Cell Growth & The Process of Cell Division
- The Nucleotide Structure of DNA & RNA
- Processes & Steps of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Mendelian Genetics & Mechanisms of Heredity
- Types & Effects of Genetic Mutations
- DNA Technology and Genomics
- Bacterial Biology Overview
- Geologic Time
- Evolution Overview
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Introduction to Fungi
- Introduction to Invertebrates
- Introduction to Vertebrates
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Human Reproductive Systems
- Ecology and the Environment
- Human Effects on the Environment
- Animal Behavior
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques
- Analyzing Scientific Data