About This Chapter
1. Gallium: Uses & Facts
Did you know the light illuminating the number on your handheld calculator comes from a component containing gallium? Continue reading to learn how this is possible, what else gallium is used for, and other interesting facts.
2. Protons: Definition, Charge & Mass
Protons can be found in the nucleus of every atom. While originally it had been thought that protons were a fundamental particle, recent research has shown that protons are made of quarks. This lesson will cover the properties of the proton.
3. Rutherford Model of the Atom: Definition & Diagram
Though it is no longer the most accurate representation of an atom, at the time Rutherford's model was revolutionary. Learn about the development of the model of the atom and how it changed throughout history, then assess your knowledge with a quiz.
4. S-Block Elements on the Periodic Table: Properties & Overview
Take a tour of the s-block of the periodic table and get to know the elements inside. Learn all about the s-block elements, including some of their distinguishing properties, then quiz yourself on your knowledge.
5. Spin Quantum Number: Definition & Example
There are four quantum numbers that describe the configuration of an electron. In this lesson, we will discuss the fourth quantum number, which is called the spin quantum number. This describes an electron's orientation within an atom.
6. Stereoisomers: Definition, Types & Examples
Discover what a stereoisomer is and why they are so important in chemistry, biochemistry, and medicine. This lesson teaches how to identify a stereoisomer and distinguish it from other types of isomers.
7. The Element Krypton: History, Facts, Uses & Properties
Krypton is an element on the periodic table and belongs to the family of unreactive noble gases. Learn about this gaseous element's history, uses and chemical properties, as well as some fascinating facts.
8. The Element Neon: History, Facts & Uses
Neon signs have been iconic in America since the 1920's and are still common today. In this lesson, we will find out how neon was discovered and why it has been so important to us.
9. Trace Elements: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of trace elements and their importance in many different systems. We will introduce the topics of trace elements in earth science, the human body, and the environment.
10. Transition Metals: Definition, List & Properties
The heart of the periodic table is home to some of the most famous metals, the transition metals. Learn the definition of a transition metal, look at a list of them, and learn some of their properties. Then, assess your knowledge with a quiz.
11. Uranium: Definition & Uses
Mention of the word uranium most likely conjures up images of mushroom clouds or evacuation zones around nuclear power plants. But uranium itself is not inherently dangerous. You'll learn about this interesting element in this lesson.
12. Valence Electron: Definition, Configuration & Example
Electrons are an essential part of an atom. Unlike protons and neutrons, valence electrons take part in the excitement of a chemical reaction. Learn how to find the number of valence electrons of any element in this lesson.
13. Weak Acids: Properties & Examples
Whether you realize it or not, you eat or use weak acids on an everyday basis. In this lesson, you'll learn about the definition and properties of weak acids and become familiar with some examples.
14. What Are Atoms? - Definition & Structure
An atom is the basic building block of all matter. Everything in existence is made up of atoms. Learn more about the atom, its history and structure, then test your knowledge with quiz questions.
15. What Is a Subatomic Particle? - Definition & Mass
A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom. Learn more about how to identify subatomic particles through several examples, and test your knowledge with quiz questions.
16. What is an Energy Level of an Atom? - Definition & Equation
In this lesson, you will learn about the possible energy states that an electron can have in an atom. You will also understand how these energy levels give rise to the light emission spectra of individual atoms.
17. What is Argon? - Facts, Properties & Uses
Argon is abundant in our atmosphere but evaded discovery until the late 1800s. In this lesson, we will look at how argon was discovered, its properties and how we use it. A quiz will test our knowledge.
18. Diatomic Molecule: Definition & Example
Did you know that diatomic molecules make up the majority of the Earth's atmosphere? Diatomic molecules are made up of two atoms. In this lesson, we will discuss diatomic molecules and go over some examples.
19. What is Atomic Mass? - Definition & Examples
Atomic mass is a characteristic of an atom that is a measure of its size. It is plays a major role in the chemical properties of elements. This article discusses atomic mass and how it is calculated.
20. What is Chromium? - Facts, Foods, Benefits & Side Effects
What do Julia Roberts, broccoli, and dollar bills have in common? The answer is the chemical element chromium. In this lesson we will learn what chromium is, why we need it in our diet and why it is also considered a serious environmental pollutant.
21. What Is Helium? - Definition & Concept
In this lesson, explore how the gas helium was discovered and learn about its properties. Learn how helium is used every day, from inflating party balloons to propelling spacecraft.
22. What is Hydrogen? - Formula, Production & Uses
Hydrogen is the lightest naturally occurring element, and is important in many biological, chemical, and industrial processes. This article discusses hydrogen, its properties, and some of its many uses.
23. What is Iron? - Ore & Explanation
Iron. It has an age, a horse and a man named after it. But what is iron, where does it come from and how do we get it? In this lesson, you will learn about this useful metal.
24. What is Molar Mass? - Definition, Formula & Examples
Compounds have mass, and this is what we call the molar mass. In this lesson, we will discuss the molar mass and go over examples on how to calculate it.
25. What is Nickel? - Definition & Explanation
This lesson focuses on the element nickel. The location of nickel on the periodic table, its atomic structure, chemical, and physical properties are discussed in general terms. This lesson also includes selected applications for nickel that are significant to modern currency and manufacturing.
26. What is Nitrogen? - Cycle & Formula
Nitrogen is a vital element for all living things. This lesson walks through some of the properties of nitrogen, the nitrogen cycle, and other uses of nitrogen.
27. What is Oxygen? - Formula & Levels
Breathe! You've just processed another dose of oxygen. Learn about some different forms of oxygen critical to life on Earth, particularly dioxygen and ozone.
28. What is Silica? - Properties & Definition
Silica is the most abundant mineral in the earth's crust, but you might not know much about it. Quartz, sand, and glass are all made of silica. Learn more about the properties and uses of this plentiful mineral.
29. What is Silicon? - Properties & Uses
Learn more about silicon and its amazing qualities. It is one of the most abundant materials on Earth and has a myriad of uses. After the lesson, a quiz is provided to check your understanding.
30. What is Sodium Hydroxide? - Formula & Reactions
While handling sodium hydroxide can be dangerous, knowledge of sodium hydroxide can be enriching. Learn what sodium hydroxide is, its formula and about some chemical reactions involving sodium hydroxide in this lesson.
31. What is Sodium? - Definition, Facts, Properties & Uses
Sodium is everywhere. It's in your sweat, it's in your food, and it's even in the ocean. But, don't be afraid of this common and useful element. In this lesson, learn about the definition of sodium, its properties and uses and even some cool facts.
32. What is Tungsten? - Definition, Properties & Uses
What's the first thing you do when you walk in a dark room? Turn on the light! But what makes the light bulb emit light? The answer is tungsten. This lesson will help you understand the definition, properties, and uses for this useful element.
33. P-Block Elements on the Periodic Table: Properties & Overview
Come on a tour of the p-block, an area on the periodic table filled with an incredibly diverse group of elements. Learn what the p-block elements are, discover some of their properties, and then assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
34. Alkali Metal Elements: Properties, Characteristics & Reactions
What happens when you put a chunk of an alkali metal in water? Fire, of course! Learn the characteristics of this interesting chemical family, examine some typical alkali metal reactions, and then quiz yourself on your new knowledge.
35. Alkaline Earth Metals: Definition, Properties & Characteristics
Column 2A of the periodic table is home to the reactive alkaline earth metals. We find these elements in fireworks, vitamins, and even running through our own veins. Learn some properties and characteristics of this group of elements, and then take a quiz.
36. Anion: Definition & Examples
Ions are charged particles that are important for biological and chemical systems. Anions are ions that have a negative charge. This article discusses anions, their properties, and examples of anions in chemistry and nature.
37. Atomic Number: Definition & Symbol
This lesson focuses on an important concept in chemistry and physics known as the atomic number. Atomic number is defined, and examples from the periodic table of the elements are provided to help students apply the concept.
38. Average Atomic Mass: Definition & Formula
Did you know there are three types of oxygen? Atoms of elements have different versions of each other called isotopes. In this lesson, we will learn how to find the average atomic mass of the elements from its isotopes.
39. Cation: Definition & Examples
Cations are positively the most positive type of particle. Discover what a cation is, where you can find them, and learn some examples of cations. Then, assess your new knowledge with a quiz!
40. Dmitri Mendeleev & the Periodic Table: Biography, Contribution & Facts
A man of many eccentricities, Dmitri Mendeleev and his contributions to the periodic table are so significant that they have been compared to Darwin and the development of the theory of evolution. Read about this legendary chemist and his role in developing one of the most important tools used in science. Then quiz yourself on your new knowledge.
41. Electronegativity: Definition & Trends
The attraction of electrons is different depending on the element. This degree of attraction is measured by the element's electronegativity. In this lesson, we will discuss electronegativity, its trends in the periodic table, and bonding.
42. Formula for Mass: Definition & Examples
In this lesson you will learn about mass and how it is tied to Newton's Second Law of Motion. You will learn how to calculate mass and how to measure mass through a few examples.
43. Halogens on the Periodic Table: Properties, Reactivity & Uses
Elements are grouped into families on the periodic table based on their chemical and physical properties. In this lesson, you will learn about a unique group known as the halogen family.
44. Hydroxide Ion: Definition & Formula
If the name 'hydroxide' sounds toxic to you, that's good. Hydroxide is a powerful chemical with potentially dangerous properties. Learn the definition and formula of hydroxide, as well as some interesting facts about it, in this lesson.
45. Metals on the Periodic Table: Definition & Reactivity
Look around for a second...how many metallic things can you see? Generally when we think of metals, we think of substances that are shiny and durable; however, they're also in our food and in our bodies. Learn what makes a metal a metal and why metals are special.
46. Negative Charge: Definition & Overview
There are two types of charge, positive and negative. In this lesson, you will learn about how negative charges were assigned to electrons. You will also learn about the properties of negative charges and how they affect other objects near them.
47. Neutrons: Definition & Concept
Neutrons are the big guys of the atom. This lesson explains the structure of the neutron, its properties, and some of its influences on the function of the atom.
48. Noble Gases: Definition, List & Properties
Elements are grouped on the periodic table based on their chemical properties. In this lesson, you will learn about a group of elements known as the noble gases and their unique properties.
49. Nonmetal Elements on the Periodic Table: Definition, Properties, & Reactions
Nonmetal elements are omnipresent and essential for life. Learn about the properties and typical reactions of these important elements, and then assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
50. Oxidation Number: Definition, Rules & Examples
Knowing the ion form of an atom is important when putting together atoms to form a compound. An oxidation number is assigned to an atom to know its ion form. In this lesson, we will go over the rules to assign oxidation numbers to atoms.
51. What is Xenon? - Definition, Uses & Facts
Xenon is an element that exists as a gas at most temperatures and is not very reactive. This lesson looks at some general information about xenon, as well as some of its useful applications.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the General Studies Science: Help & Review course
- Chemical Compounds & Bonds Overview
- Drawing Conclusions from a Scientific Investigation
- Electricity Fundamentals & Overview
- Energy & Heat Overview
- Essential Biology Concepts
- Essential Chemistry Concepts
- Essential Concepts in Physics
- Evolutionary Principles
- Food Webs Overview
- Foundations of Chemical Compounds & Bonds
- Foundations of Chemical Reactions, Acids, and Bases
- Foundations of Energy & Heat
- Foundations of Magnetism
- Fundamentals of Mechanics
- Lab Equipment for Scientific Study
- Measurement & the Metric System Fundamentals
- Nuclear Energy Fundamentals
- Planning a Scientific Investigation Or Experiment
- Plant & Soil Ecology
- Populations & Relationships in Ecology
- Sound & Light Waves
- Studying Biological Communities
- Using Data for Investigation & Experimentation