About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our AP Chemistry Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about the significance of the arrangement of elements on the periodic table. There is no faster or easier way to learn about the periodic table of elements. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn about the structure of the electron shell, groups and periods of elements, and patterns of shared characteristics among elements.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a chemistry curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and a periodic table of elements unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
The Periodic Table of Elements Unit Objectives:
- Discuss how elements are arranged into groups and periods and how elements in those classifications share some common physical properties.
- Describe the parts of the electron shell, including energy level, valence level, and valence electron.
- Identify the relationship between an element's place on the periodic table and its valence electrons and energy levels.
- Evaluate how atomic radii changes across periods and down groups on the periodic table of elements.
- Outline trends in ionization energy across periods and down groups on the periodic table.
- Discuss the relationship between electronegativity and an element's place on the periodic table.
- List additional characteristics, such as boiling point and metallic properties, that trend up or down depending on placement on the periodic table.
- Understand differences between transition metals and main group elements.
1. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
In the late 1800s, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table by organizing elements by their atomic weight in increasing order. Learn about Mendeleev, discover how the elements on the periodic table are organized, and explore the properties of periods and groups.
2. The Electron Shell
An electron shell is the space surrounding a nucleus where electrons are usually found. Learn more about the electron shell, energy levels, valence electrons, and noble gases.
3. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements
Valence electrons are the outer electrons in an atom that participate in chemical reactions and determine chemical changes to atoms and molecules. Learn about valence electrons, the significance of orbital location, and how to represent the number of valence electrons in a Lewis dot diagram.
4. Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
The size of an atom is determined by the distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus. Learn about atomic and ionic radii trends among groups on the periodic table, and how to predict the relative size of an atom based on where it is located on the periodic table.
5. Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Ionization energy is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom. On the periodic table, as atoms increase in size, the amount of energy needed to remove an electron decreases. Learn about ionization energy and how to identify ionization trends on the periodic table.
6. Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Electronegativity measures an atom's tendency to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Explore electronegativity and its trends among groups and periods in the periodic table and discover why some elements are more electronegative than others.
7. The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point
The 118 known elements currently on the periodic table are organized by increasing atomic weight, but there are also several trends or relationships among and between the elements. Learn about three trends on the periodic table (diagonal relationship, metallic character, and boiling point) and discover why metals are excellent conductors of electricity.
8. Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences
On the periodic table, main group elements are found in groups 1, 2, and 13-18, while transition metals are found in groups 3-12. Learn about the properties of transition metals, main group elements, and how to compare and contrast the characteristics of transition metals with main group elements.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum course
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Properties of Matter - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Atomic Structure - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Nuclear Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Bonding - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Gases - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Solutions - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Stoichiometry & Chemical Equations - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Equilibrium - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Kinetics - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Thermodynamics - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Organic Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam: Homeschool Curriculum