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- Properties of groups and periods
- Electron shell
- Valence electrons
- Energy levels in atoms of elements
- Atomic radii
- Ionic radii
- Ionization energy
- Diagonal relationships
- Metallic character
- Boiling point
- Main group elements and transition metals
1. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
In the late 1800s, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table by organizing elements by their atomic weight in increasing order. Learn about Mendeleev, discover how the elements on the periodic table are organized, and explore the properties of periods and groups.
2. The Electron Shell
An electron shell is the space surrounding a nucleus where electrons are usually found. Learn more about the electron shell, energy levels, valence electrons, and noble gases.
3. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements
Valence electrons are the outer electrons in an atom that participate in chemical reactions and determine chemical changes to atoms and molecules. Learn about valence electrons, the significance of orbital location, and how to represent the number of valence electrons in a Lewis dot diagram.
4. Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
The size of an atom is determined by the distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus. Learn about atomic and ionic radii trends among groups on the periodic table, and how to predict the relative size of an atom based on where it is located on the periodic table.
5. Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Ionization energy is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom. On the periodic table, as atoms increase in size, the amount of energy needed to remove an electron decreases. Learn about ionization energy and how to identify ionization trends on the periodic table.
6. Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Electronegativity measures an atom's tendency to attract a bonding pair of electrons. Explore electronegativity and its trends among groups and periods in the periodic table and discover why some elements are more electronegative than others.
7. The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point
The 118 known elements currently on the periodic table are organized by increasing atomic weight, but there are also several trends or relationships among and between the elements. Learn about three trends on the periodic table (diagonal relationship, metallic character, and boiling point) and discover why metals are excellent conductors of electricity.
8. Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences
On the periodic table, main group elements are found in groups 1, 2, and 13-18, while transition metals are found in groups 3-12. Learn about the properties of transition metals, main group elements, and how to compare and contrast the characteristics of transition metals with main group elements.
9. D-Block Elements: Properties & Electron Configuration
In chemistry, the d-block elements are the transition elements. Learn what this means by exploring the properties and electron configuration of the d-block elements. Understand how electrons act in d-block elements and review how transition metals are used.
10. Plutonium: Definition, Uses & Facts
Did you know the element plutonium is named after Pluto? Continue reading to learn more interesting facts about this element, discover the various uses of plutonium and understand its chemical background.
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