About This Chapter
The Protestant Reformation - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Before the Protestant Reformation began in the 16th century, the Catholic Church had a firm grasp on the people of Western Europe and used its belief system to maintain that power. These practices were so firmly engrained among the Church's followers that there was little resistance; after all, who wants to be excommunicated or kept out of heaven? This all changed once the Reformation began. In this chapter, you'll learn about key topics like:
- How the vernacular Bible undermined the Church's authority
- What the Catholic sacraments were
- What Martin Luther's opposition to the Church entailed
- How the Protestant Reformation spread throughout Europe
- What ways the Reformation impacted France, Germany and Switzerland
- How Protestant beliefs influenced society
|The Rise of the Vernacular and the Decline of Latin||See how the vernacular Bible played a role in spreading the Reformation.|
|The Catholic Church Before the Reformation: Beliefs and Practices||Get details on Catholic sacraments and the role of the Church in followers' lives.|
|Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation||Find out who Luther was and examine his opposition to the selling of indulgences.|
|Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists||Discover how Northern Renaissance art was influenced by the Reformation.|
|The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe||Explore the factors that contributed to the spread of Reformation ideas throughout Europe.|
|The Reformation's Impact on Germany: The Peasant Wars||Examine the causes of Germany's Peasant Wars and the Reformation's influence on the event.|
|Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation||Learn about the Reformation ideals held by Calvin and Zwingli and how they impacted their followers in Switzerland.|
|The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots||Find out what spurred conflict between Catholics and Protestant Huguenots in France.|
|The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation||Examine the purpose of the Council of Trent and how the Catholic Church changed as a result of the Reformation.|
|Life After the Reformation & Protestant Influence on Society||Discover how the rise of Protestantism impacted multiple aspects of daily life.|
|The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation||Take a look at the different beliefs among Catholic and Protestant reformers.|
1. The Rise of the Vernacular and the Decline of Latin
This lesson explains how Latin was widespread in Europe during the Roman Empire as well as how vernacular languages slowly replaced it. It also reviews how the Romance languages developed.
2. The Catholic Church Before the Reformation: Beliefs and Practices
In 1500 C.E. the Roman Catholic Church was a very powerful institution in the West. Watch this video to learn how the Church maintained its power by teaching that salvation could only be earned by those who received the sacraments and performed good works.
3. Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation
This lesson covers the start of the Protestant Reformation. It begins by comparing the vast array and peacefulness of Christian denominations in modern days to the limited choices and violence of the past. Then it goes into the story of Martin Luther, from his 95 Theses through the Diet of Worms up to the beginning of the German Peasant Revolt.
4. Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists
The Protestant Reformation introduced some pretty substantial changes into European society. In this lesson, we'll be talking about some of the impacts it had on the art of Northern Europe.
5. The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe
In the 16th century, Martin Luther inspired people to believe that the Catholic Church shouldn't hold authority over laypeople. This lesson explores the spread of these Protestant ideas throughout Europe.
6. The Reformation's Impact on Germany: The Peasant Wars
The Reformation was a time when Christianity was split into Catholicism and Protestantism. This lesson explores the major changes brought about by the Reformation in Germany in the 16th century.
7. Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation resulted in many people splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the effect of the Reformation in Switzerland under the leadership of Zwingli and Calvin.
8. The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots
The Protestant Reformation was so popular and controversial in Europe that it sometimes led to war. This lesson explores the violent effect of the Reformation in France as war erupted between the Catholics and the Protestants.
9. The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a movement of Christians who disagreed with some of the teachings and actions of the Catholic Church. This article explores the effect of the Reformation on the Church.
10. Life After the Reformation & Protestant Influence on Society
The Protestant Reformation was a huge movement that led to many Christians splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the after effects on families, education and social life.
11. The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation challenged the beliefs of the Catholic Church. This lesson explores some of the differing beliefs among Protestant and Catholic reformers.
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Other chapters within the History 113: World History II course
- Europe's Age of Exploration
- The Elizabethan Era in Europe
- European Colonialism
- Absolute Monarchs in Europe
- Empire and Expansion in the 18th Century
- The Asian World (1368-1911)
- The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
- The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte
- Nationalist Revolutions Across the World
- Industrialization in the Western World
- European Life & Trends
- Imperialism in the 19th-20th Centuries
- Global Transformations in the Early 20th Century
- World War I: Battles & Diplomacy
- Revolution & Nationalism in Asia
- Crisis & Depression Between the World Wars
- World War II: European & Pacific Theaters
- Restructuring the World After World War II
- The Spread of Democracy Across the World
- Europe & the United States After 1945
- Latin America after 1945
- Africa & the Middle East After 1945
- Asia & the Pacific After 1945
- Contemporary Global Concerns