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- Protein synthesis in the cell
- Transcription of messenger RNA
- Regulation of gene expression
- RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell
- Genetic code
- Codon recognition
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Protein is necessary for healthy cells. Learn about the roles of central dogma and protein synthesis in the process to form protein molecules, and understand the function and importance of genes in this process.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
Transcription is an important part of the process to transform DNA into a living being. Learn about transcription, including when it begins and the three phases in its process. Understand which DNA strand is the template for transcription and explore the purposes of a promoter, polymerase, and mRNA.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Our bodies regulate gene expression. Learn the function of genes and understand gene regulation, including transcriptional repression as well as induction. Explore the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Operons are groups of genes that control transcription in a prokaryotic cell. Discover how operons repress or induct gene expressions in complex interactions of DNA, enzymes, and regulatory proteins.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
Eukaryotic cells have unique considerations for gene regulation that differ from those for prokaryote cells. Learn about these differences, understand introns and exons, and explore RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell through the splicing of introns and exons.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
RNA translates into amino acids through genetic code. Learn about the translation process and review the genetic code language, plus discover the role of codons, including start codons, stop codons, and other codons.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Codon recognition is the ability of codons to match with the proper amino acids. Discover how essential codon recognition is to the assembly of polypeptides, and how to read a codon chart.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
Codon recognition is tRNA's ability to match codons with the appropriate amino acids. Learn about this important part of the translation process for cells, understand its role in polypeptide assembly and protein production, and explore how tRNA and anticodons interpret the genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes live on the endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus and are key in the process of polypeptide assembly. This is essential for genetic translation because amino acid chains are linked together by peptide bonds. Explore the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds are formed.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
In genetics, the translation is the conversion of mRNA genetic code in amino acids. Learn about the mechanics of translation, including its three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination, understand how this process produces protein.
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