About This Chapter
The Transcription and Translation Process - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The transcription process is how DNA creates RNA, another nucleic acid. This will be covered in this chapter, along with how antisense strands and sense strands work to create messenger RNA (mRNA). You'll observe how transcription takes place, from initiation to elongation to termination, and examine the transcription factors that control this transfer of information. For translation to work, there has to be a clear set of rules, a genetic code for translating RNA into the amino acids that will ultimately become a protein. This language consists of codons, sequences of three nucleotides that are recognized by anticodons, which you will learn about in these lessons. You'll also learn about:
- What protein synthesis is
- How information is passed on from DNA to RNA
- What RNA splicing does
- How introns can be removed to leave only exons
- How RNA polymerase's access to specific genes is controlled
- How the control of operons guides the transcription process
|Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma||Explore the steps of central dogma.|
|Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA||Examine the transcription of DNA to RNA.|
|Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction||Discover how gene expression is regulated through the control of gene transcription.|
|How an Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell||Learn all about operons.|
|RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons||Study introns and exons.|
|What Is the Genetic Code that Translates RNA into Amino Acids?||Analyze how RNA is translated into a series of amino acids.|
|Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition||Learn how to use the RNA codon chart.|
|Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code||Explore the concepts of codon recognition, tRNA, anticodons and polypeptides.|
|The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation||Find out how peptide bonds link amino acids to form polypeptides.|
|Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps||See how genetic code is used to make amino acid chains.|
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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