About This Chapter
The U.S. Court System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
An instructor will lead you through the primary components of the U.S. court system in this series of video lessons. Your lessons will include an exploration of the different kinds of court systems, key ideas in law, and duties of courtroom attendees, depending on their role. At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
- Describe the history of the U.S. court system
- Define the dual-court system
- Define the federal court system
- Discuss differences among the state and federal court systems
- Explain key concepts, like long arm statutes and appellate jurisdiction
|American Courts: History, Development & the Dual-Court System||Outline the history of the U.S. court system, including the dual-court system|
|The Court System: Trial, Appellate & Supreme Court||Describe the three types of courts; identify similarities and differences among them|
|The 3 Levels of the Federal Court System: Structure and Organization||Describe federal court system levels and how they operate|
|Overview of the U.S. Supreme Court||Describe the duties and responsibilities of the Supreme Court; define the concept of 'writ of certiorari', and explain why there are nine justices|
|State Court System: Structure & Overview||Discuss how and why state courts differ from each other, and how and why each state's court system is similar to the federal court system|
|Long Arm Statute: Definition & Example||Explain what a long arm statute is, and discuss its role within the context of a real-world legal case|
|Court Functions: Original and Appellate Jurisdiction||Explain the concepts of original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction|
|Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Federal, State and Concurrent||Differentiate among three kinds of subject matter jurisdiction and illustrate points with real-world examples|
|Jurisdiction over Property: Definition & Lesson||Discuss this legal concept|
|What is the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?||Describe original jurisdiction and limits on the Supreme Court|
|How Venue is Determined for a Court Case||Explain how it's decided where court cases are heard|
|Courtroom Participants: Roles of Legal Members, Non-Legal Members & Interested Parties||Identify and explain the presence of people typically found in the courtroom while a case is being heard|
1. American Courts: History, Development & The Dual-Court System
In this lesson, you'll consider the history of the court system in the United States and how two distinct parts developed in the early years of the country. You'll learn about debates among legislators and the significant laws they established.
2. The Court System: Trial, Appellate & Supreme Court
There are three separate levels of courts in our legal system, each serving a different function. Trial courts settle disputes as the first court of instance, appellate courts review cases moved up from trial courts and supreme courts hear cases of national importance or those appealed in the court of appeals.
3. The 3 Levels of the Federal Court System: Structure and Organization
The federal court system has three main levels: U.S. District Court, U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court. Each level of court serves a different legal function for both civil and criminal cases.
4. Overview of the US Supreme Court
The U.S. Supreme Court justices reside over cases involving original jurisdiction under certain circumstances and appellate jurisdiction when a decision from a lower court involving constitutional law is at issue. Appellate cases require a writ of certiorari requesting permission to address this court.
5. State Court System: Structure & Overview
There is no uniform structure to the State Court System. Each state has its own system but most states operate similarly to the Federal Court System in that there are several levels of courts including trial courts, intermediate appellate courts and supreme courts.
6. Long Arm Statute: Definition & Example
Long-arm statute refers to the jurisdiction a court has over out-of-state defendant corporations. International Shoe v. State of Washington was a landmark case that set precedent for establishing the right for government to use the long-arm statute to bring an action against a defendant corporation.
7. Court Functions: Original and Appellate Jurisdiction
Courts exercise two types of jurisdiction over cases: original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction for cases previously heard in a lower court. Judges have the option, when hearing an appeals case, to reverse or remand a decision based on a violation of law like abuse of discretion.
8. Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Federal, State and Concurrent
One of the ways a court determines whether a case will be heard is based on subject matter jurisdiction. We will explore several factors that determine subject matter jurisdiction in state and federal courts, including concurrent subject matter jurisdiction.
9. Jurisdiction over Property: Definition & Types
In rem and quasi in rem jurisdiction give a court power over property. The court's power over the property can be used as leverage or as a means of satisfying a civil action against a defendant. The conditions that are required determine the court's ability to exercise both types of jurisdiction of property.
10. What is the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
The U.S. Supreme Court exercises a right to preside over specific cases and is considered the court of original jurisdiction based on subject-matter jurisdiction. It is considered an appellate court for cases involving constitutional law under certain circumstances.
11. How Venue is Determined for a Court Case
Venue is the location where a civil or criminal case is decided. The venue is decided similarly in civil and criminal trials. However, the venue is decided differently in state and federal courts.
12. Courtroom Participants: Professional & Non-Professional Members
Learn the roles of the many different people present at a trial who may be part of the courtroom work group. Find out who is considered a professional participant and who are known as the outsiders.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Criminal Justice 101: Intro to Criminal Justice course
- Introduction to Crime & Criminology
- Theories of Crime
- Types of Crime
- Victims & Victimization in Criminal Justice
- The Criminal Justice Field
- Constitutional Law in the U.S.
- Criminal Law in the U.S.
- The Criminal Trial in the U.S. Justice System
- The Sentencing Process in Criminal Justice
- Criminal Justice Agencies in the U.S.
- Law Enforcement in the U.S.
- The Role of the Police Department
- Corrections & Correctional Institutions
- The Juvenile Justice System
- Studying for Criminal Justice 101