About This Chapter
The U.S. Legal System, Jurisdiction & Evidence - Chapter Summary
Check out this comprehensive chapter to review the major aspects of the U.S. legal system, jurisdiction and evidence. As you progress through these short and engaging lessons, you'll study the organization of U.S. court systems, different types of evidence, dual federalism, the supremacy clause and much more. The chapter was designed with simplicity and flexibility in mind, which is why we made it accessible on any computer or mobile device. To make sure you fully understand these legal concepts, simply take the included lesson quizzes and chapter exam. When you're finished, you should be able to:
- Explain the concept of dual federalism
- Interpret the supremacy clause
- Describe the structure of the U.S. federal and state court systems
- Compare types of jurisdiction
- Define concept of the burden of proof
- Differentiate between direct, real, forensic, circumstantial and inadmissible evidence
- Discuss the significance of the Mapp v. Ohio case
1. What is Dual Federalism? - Definition & Examples
A federal system divides authority between two levels, state and national--but who gets to do what? And how do we know? One doctrine, known as dual federalism, aims for a simple answer, but tends to find complexities.
2. The Supremacy Clause: Definition & Example
This lesson will cover the supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution, which states that if a federal law and a state law come into conflict with one another, the federal law will take priority over the state law.
3. The State Court System of the United States: Definition & Structure
The United States has two separate court systems: the federal and the state. Each state has its own set of state courts. This lesson explains state courts, including the structure and jurisdiction of state court systems.
4. The Federal Court System of the United States: Definition, Structure & Levels
The United States has two separate court systems: the federal and the state. This lesson explores the federal court system of the Unites States, including its structure and jurisdiction.
5. Overview of Jurisdiction: Types & Application
A court's authority is connected to its jurisdiction. In this lesson, we will learn the definition of jurisdiction, the different types and examples of how each type of jurisdiction works.
6. Burden of Proof: Definition & Cases
Burden of proof refers to a party's duty in a criminal or civil trial to prove that a claim is true. This lesson introduces the general concept of a burden of proof, and discusses the related legal standards and Supreme Court cases.
7. Direct Evidence: Definition, Law & Examples
In the criminal law context, direct evidence refers to direct proof of a fact. This lesson discusses the basic definition of direct evidence, as well as the laws governing this type of evidence and some examples of how the evidence is used.
8. Real Evidence in Law: Definition & Types
Real evidence describes any physical object that has a direct connection to a crime or civil action. This lesson will introduce you to some examples of real evidence and explain how real evidence is used in trials.
9. Forensic Evidence: Types, Definition & Cases
The term 'forensic' actually means relating to law and science. In this lesson, we'll review different types of forensic evidence. We'll also look at real world cases where forensic evidence was used to solve crimes.
10. Circumstantial Evidence: Definition, Types & Examples
For years, civil and criminal cases have been won or lost based on circumstantial evidence. Learn more about the definition of this term and common types of circumstantial evidence, looking at specific examples.
11. Inadmissible Evidence: Definition & Law
What evidence can be used in court of law? This lesson explains what evidence is inadmissible and reasons why certain types of evidence cannot be used in court.
12. Mapp v. Ohio in 1961: Summary, Decision & Significance
Dollree Mapp was convicted in 1957 of possession of pornography. But the Supreme Court overturned her conviction because the police obtained evidence illegally. Mapp v. Ohio used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply the Bill of Rights to state laws as well as federal laws.
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Other chapters within the Criminal Justice 307: Advanced Criminal Law course
- Introduction to Advanced Criminal Law
- The Bill of Rights & Constitutional Protections
- Elements of a Crime
- Types of Criminal Defenses
- Parties to Crime & Inchoate Offenses
- Criminal Homicide & Murder
- Sexual Offenses
- Crimes Involving Force & Fear
- Crimes Against Property
- Crimes Against the Public
- Crimes Against the Government