About This Chapter
Theoretical Approaches in Counseling - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
A counselor's practice can be informed by a wide range of theoretical approaches. Instructors in this chapter outline the goals, uniqueness and limitations of several theories and their resulting therapeutic techniques. They also briefly discuss counselors' roles in each approach. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Significant figures in the development of counseling theory
- Techniques used in psychoanalytic therapy
- Similarities between cognitive and behavioral theories
- Characteristics of humanistic approaches to counseling
|The Importance of Counseling Theory and Models||Discusses the importance of counseling theories and explains how the theoretical orientation of counselors affects their practice.|
|Wellness vs. Pathology in Theoretical Models||Provides an overview of the wellness and pathology theoretical models. Examine some of their drawbacks.|
|Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts, Motivation, Personality & Development||Introduces Sigmund Freud and classic psychoanalytic theory. Explains his view of human nature by introducing the id, ego and superego, as well as developmental stages and defense mechanisms.|
|Assessing the Psychodynamic Model: Strengths and Weaknesses||Outlines the goals of psychoanalytic therapy and explores the theory's limitations and defining traits.|
|Psychoanalytic Therapy: Free Association, Dream Analysis and Transference & Resistance||Describes the counselor's role in implementing such techniques as free association, dream analysis and the analysis of transference and resistance.|
|Alfred Adler's Theories: Lesson & Quiz||Introduces Alfred Adler, his theory of individual psychology and his social interest view of human nature.|
|Birth Order and the Inferiority Complex According to Adler||Discusses the concept of the inferiority complex and the importance of birth order in Adler's theory.|
|Behavioral Theory in Counseling: Techniques & Goals||Describes B.F. Skinner's behavioral view of human nature. Explains the stimulus-response model, applied behavior analysis and social-cognitive theory.|
|Behavioral Approaches in Therapy||Illustrates the use of operant conditioning techniques to change unwanted behaviors.|
|Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies||Introduces Aaron Beck, discusses common aspects of cognitive counseling and explains the development of cognitive-behavioral theory. Describes the process of cognitive restructuring, including thought stopping.|
|Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): Definition & Techniques||Explains Albert Ellis' creation of RET and the subsequent development of REBT as cognitive techniques merged with behaviorism.|
|Reality Therapy: Techniques, Goals & Limitations||Explores William Glasser's reality therapy and elaborates on the common aspects of this approach, including the growth force and rejection of unconscious forces.|
|Transactional Analysis Therapy and the Role of the Counselor||Outlines Eric Berne's development of transactional analysis. Discusses the goals of transactional analysis therapy, along with therapeutic techniques and the role of the counselor.|
|Ego States and Types of Transactions in Transactional Analysis Theory||Describes ego states and explains the different types of transactions that can take place.|
|Transactional Analysis Theory: Strokes and the Stroke Economy||Explores the role of strokes in transactional analysis theory and explains what is meant by the stroke economy.|
|Structural Analysis, Game Analysis and Script Analysis in Transactional Analysis Theory||Discusses structural analysis, game analysis and script analysis in transactional analysis theory.|
|Existential Therapy: Definition & Techniques||Highlights existential theory's philosophical roots and the influences of Rollo May and Viktor Frankl. Elaborates on the significance of choice and meaning and defines such terms as peak experiences and existential vacuum.|
|Humanistic Theory and Person-Centered Therapy: Goals & Techniques||Discusses Carl Rogers' person-centered therapy and his humanistic view of human nature. Addresses concepts like the phenomenological perspective and positive regard and elaborates on the holistic nature of this theory.|
|What is Gestalt Therapy? - Definition & Overview||Introduces Fritz Perls and defines the term gestalt. Explains the self-actualizing tendency and this theory's focus on 'the now.'|
|Creative Therapies: Goals, Techniques & Limitations||Explores creative therapies and their roots in Jungian theory. Examines creative and expressive arts therapies, narrative therapies and adventure-based therapies.|
|Theories of Brief Counseling and Therapy: Goals & Techniques||Outlines 'brief' therapy, including strategic and solution-focused therapies. Follows the development of these types of therapies and discusses the need for brief counseling strategies in today's society.|
1. The Importance of Counseling Theory and Models
The importance of different theories in counseling practice is discussed in this lesson. Learn what evidence-based practice is and whether all theoretical models are used with each client.
2. Wellness vs. Pathology in Theoretical Models
This lesson will discuss the differences in a wellness or pathological approach to mental health treatment. Can these approaches both be appropriate or are they always used separately?
3. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts, Motivation, Personality & Development
Learn how Sigmund Freud's theories helped shape our modern understanding of human motivation and personality development. Review key terms and take a quiz at the end of the lesson to test your knowledge.
4. Assessing the Psychodynamic Model: Strengths and Weaknesses
When people think about psychology, many immediately think of Sigmund Freud. But, how good were his ideas? In this lesson, we'll look at the psychodynamic model of psychology and its strengths and weaknesses.
5. Psychoanalytic Therapy: Free Association, Dream Analysis and Transference & Resistance
Psychoanalytic therapy has many techniques. This lesson will explore four of these techniques: free association, dream analysis, and the analysis of transference and resistance.
6. Alfred Adler's Theories: Overview & Summary
Alfred Adler's psychoanalytic theory of individual psychology has had a large impact. This lesson will provide a brief overview, explain key concepts, and explore the therapeutic technique used by Adler.
7. Birth Order and the Inferiority Complex According to Adler
Is it bad to feel inferior? What is an inferiority complex? What importance does birth order have? Learn more about how these concepts from Adlerian theory can impact a person.
8. Behavioral Theory in Counseling: Techniques & Goals
How do behavioral theorists use scientific methodology in counseling? How effective is this approach and what are its limitations? Learn the answers to these questions in this lesson.
9. Behavioral Approaches in Therapy
What is the relationship between the stimulus-response model, applied behavior analysis, social-cognitive theory, and changing behavior? Is there really more than one way to look at behavioral therapy?
10. Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Thought processes, emotions, and behaviors - oh my! Does the way we process information affect our emotional health and reactions to the world around us?
11. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): Definition & Techniques
What do you get when you take Albert Ellis and have him merge cognitive techniques with behaviorism? Why REBT, of course! Learn more about the application of rational emotive behavior therapy in this lesson.
12. Reality Therapy: Techniques, Goals & Limitations
In this lesson, we will explore William Glasser's reality therapy. We will cover topics such as how does this therapy works, its therapeutic goals, and techniques that are used by the counselor.
13. Transactional Analysis Therapy and the Role of the Counselor
Eric Berne was influenced by traditional psychoanalytic theory and neuroscience in his creation of transactional analysis. This lesson explores the therapeutic relationship in transactional analysis and describes this user friendly form of therapy.
14. Ego States and Types of Transactions in Transactional Analysis Theory
What is a transaction? Are there different types of transactions? What role do ego states play? Find out the answers to these questions and more as you explore this lesson!
15. Transactional Analysis Theory: Strokes and the Stroke Economy
How do we measure the outcomes of our interactions? This lesson will explore the role of strokes in transactional analysis theory and explain the concept of the stroke economy.
16. Structural Analysis, Game Analysis and Script Analysis in Transactional Analysis Theory
Structural analysis, game analysis, and script analysis are all essential parts of transactional analysis therapy. This lesson will explore these concepts and why they are important.
17. Existential Therapy: Definition & Key Concepts
What is the philosophy behind existential therapy? How is it structured and what assumptions does it make about human nature? Let's discover the answers to these questions.
18. Existential Therapy: Goals & Techniques
Existential therapy is derived from philosophical roots. What is the meaning of life? Who am I? How does existential therapy work by attempting to answer these questions?
19. Carl Rogers' Humanistic Theory and Psychotherapy
Carl Rogers is often credited with being one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century with contributions that include client-centered therapy, self-actualization, and the theory of self.
20. Person-Centered Therapy: Goals & Techniques
What are the goals and techniques used in person-centered therapy? Why is the client/counselor relationship important? Answer these questions and learn more in this lesson.
21. What is Gestalt Therapy? - Definition and Overview
Learn the way counseling is viewed when considering Fritz Perls' idea of Gestalt. Explore the meaning of Gestalt and its impact on the therapeutic process as you watch this lesson.
22. Techniques in Gestalt Therapy: Exercises and Experiments
Exercises and experiments are two techniques in Gestalt therapy that are used to increase a client's present awareness. Learn more about how these techniques work in this lesson.
23. Creative Therapies: Goals, Techniques & Limitations
Do you ever feel like you are acting out a script in your life? Are your feelings better expressed through music or art? Do stressful situations provide you with insight? If so, the creative therapies may be for you!
24. Theories of Brief Counseling and Therapy: Goals & Techniques
Brief therapy provides a rapid approach to intervention for a specific problem. This lesson will introduce brief strategic therapy and solution-focused brief therapy as well as the overall counseling approach.
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Other chapters within the Counseling 101: Fundamentals of Counseling course
- The History of Counseling and Psychotherapy
- The Professional Counselor
- The Counseling Process
- Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling
- Human Growth and Development in Counseling
- School Counseling
- Mental Health, Substance Abuse & Rehabilitation Counseling
- Social and Cultural Elements of Counseling
- Marriage and Family Counseling
- Career Counseling
- Group Counseling