About This Chapter
Theoretical Foundations for Life Span Developmental Psychology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Learn about the thinkers who influenced life span developmental theories from the 19th century to today. In this chapter, instructors stress concepts such as classical and operant conditioning, attachment theory, psychosocial development, and other theories that went into the modern understanding of life span developmental psychology. You will be introduced to the relevant vocabulary associated with this topic. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Associate each psychologist with his or her theory
- Describe the main ideas of each theory and criticisms of that theory
- Differentiate between theories
- Have an idea of how life span developmental psychology was founded and how it progressed throughout the years
- Name the individuals who contributed to life span developmental psychology and identify their theories
|Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development||Understand key terms, such as accommodation and assimilation, of Piaget's theory.|
|Bruner's Theory of Development||Describe how Bruner disagreed with Piaget; describe Bruner's enactive, iconic, and symbolic modes of representation and his emphasis on language development.|
|Case's Theory of Development||Describe Case's theory of development and how Case's theory differed from Piaget.|
|Attachment Theory: Definition & Criticism of Bowlby & Ainsworth's Theories||Define attachment theory and the four types of attachments that children have with their caregivers; describe the characteristics of infants who have each of the four types of attachment bonds; explain criticisms of this theory.|
|Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development||Describe the eight stages of psychosocial development and the conflict present at each stage.|
|Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts, Motivation, Personality & Development||Define each of Freud's Stages of development, including anal, oral, etc.|
|Differences Between Freud and Erikson's Approaches to Psychoanalytic Theory: Differences & Analysis||Discuss the differences between Freud and Erikson's approaches.|
|Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning: Differences and Examples||Distinguish between classical conditioning and operant conditioning.|
|Classical Conditioning||Discuss Ivan Pavlov's experiment with classical conditioning and terms, such as unconditioned stimulus and conditioned response.|
|Watson and Little Albert||Discuss Watson's experiment with Little Albert and the findings.|
|Operant Conditioning||Discuss Edward Thorndike and his law of effect; understand BF Skinner's work on operant conditioning and how Skinner's work built on Thorndike's.|
|Albert Bandura: Social-Cognitive Theory and Vicarious Learning||Discuss Albert Bandura and his theory of learning and development; define vicarious learning.|
|Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory of Development: Definition & Examples||Define the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.|
|Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development||Describe the theory and the concepts of proximal development and scaffolding; discuss criticisms; provide examples.|
|Theories of Adult Development||Discuss Daniel Levinson's theory of adulthood development and the tasks associated with each stage; compare and contrast Vaillant's theory of adaptation to life and Bernice Neugarten's theory on adult development.|
1. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on how learners interact with their environment to develop complex reasoning and knowledge. This lesson will focus on the six basic assumptions of that theory, including the key terms: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
2. Jerome Bruner's Theory of Development: Discovery Learning & Representation
This lesson explores Jerome Bruner's theory of development, his three modes of representation, and his beliefs on learning, language, and discovery. It will also differentiate Bruner's views of learning compared to Jean Piaget's views.
3. Robbie Case's Theory of Development: Neo-Piagetian Perspective
The Neo-Piagetian perspective stemmed from criticism of Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development theory. This lesson will discuss the Neo-Piagetian perspective and Robbie Case's Theory of Development.
4. Attachment Theory: Definition & Criticism of Bowlby & Ainsworth's Theories
Relationships are built between two people. These meaningful bonds are critical for human development, and the most important type of relationship is that between child and parent or caregiver. This lesson will discuss attachment theory and the role of attachment on human growth and development.
5. Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development: Conflicts & Growth
Erikson identified eight stages of psychosocial development, with each stage presenting a conflict that must be overcome. This lesson will discuss the conflict and growth associated with each stage of development.
6. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts, Motivation, Personality & Development
Learn how Sigmund Freud's theories helped shape our modern understanding of human motivation and personality development. Review key terms and take a quiz at the end of the lesson to test your knowledge.
7. Freud and Erikson's Approaches to Psychoanalytic Theory: Differences & Analysis
Differentiate between Freud's and Erikson's approaches to psychoanalytic theory in this lesson. You will examine and compare developmental stages side by side and have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a quiz at the end.
8. Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning: Differences and Examples
This lesson will compare classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Examples are provided and key terms associated with each type of learning are defined.
9. Classical Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Principles & Examples
Can you be conditioned to associate something new with something else you naturally respond to? In this lesson, we'll take a look at a famous psychological experiment that tested how brains have the ability to automatically react to new stimuli if it's conditioned correctly.
10. Psychologist John Watson & the Little Albert Experiment
Does classical conditioning work on humans? In this lesson, you'll explore this question as poor Little Albert is taught to fear a rat. You'll also see how classical conditioning can be used in advertising.
11. Operant Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Theory & Examples
How do we adapt our behaviors to our advantage? Can we learn from punishment and reward? With operant conditioning, our behaviors are shaped based off the responses we get from them.
12. Albert Bandura: Social-Cognitive Theory and Vicarious Learning
A person's cognition, environment and behavior play important roles in learning new knowledge and skills. This lesson will focus on Albert Bandura's contributions to social learning and vicarious experiences.
13. Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: Definition and Examples
Have you learned behaviors or skills from observing others? Maybe you have learned from observing a teacher, friend, or supervisor. We acquire new knowledge and skills from a variety of methods. This lesson will introduce the concepts of the social-cognitive theory, which focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context.
14. Human Growth and Development Theories
This lesson will give you an overview of the major human development theories. You will briefly examine their strengths and weaknesses and meet a few key figures from each theory.
15. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Definition, Theory & Pyramid
Why is it that when some of our needs aren't met, it's almost impossible to concentrate on other ones? Psychologist Abraham Maslow spent his career looking for these answers. Watch this lesson to learn about some of his most important conclusions.
16. Carl Rogers' Humanistic Theory and Psychotherapy
Carl Rogers is often credited with being one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century with contributions that include client-centered therapy, self-actualization, and the theory of self.
17. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory of Development: Definition & Examples
Learn about Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory in this lesson and explore the five levels of the environment that can influence human development.
18. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
The role of culture and social interactions are imperative to cognitive development, according to psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. This lesson will discuss how social interactions play a role in cognitive development of children, provide an overview of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory and describe the stages of speech and language development.
19. Theories of Adult Development: Levinson, Vaillant & Neugarten
Understanding adult development is an important step in the process of understanding how societies function. This lesson will focus on three theories of adult development proposed by Daniel Levinson, George Vaillant, and Bernice Neugarten.
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Other chapters within the DSST Lifespan Developmental Psychology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Domains of Human Development
- Research Methods and the Study of Life Span Development
- The Impact of Genetics in Human Development & Psychology
- Prenatal Development Concepts
- Childbirth and Newborn Characteristics
- Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
- Psychosocial and Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
- Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
- Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
- Physical and Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood
- Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
- Physical and Sexual Development in Adolescence
- Psychosocial Development in Adolescence
- Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood
- Psychosocial Development in Early Adulthood
- Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
- Psychosocial Development in Middle Adulthood
- Physical Development in Late Adulthood
- Psychosocial and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
- Death and Dying: Stages and Psychological Impact
- DSST Informational Resources
- DSST Lifespan Developmental Psychology Flashcards