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Classical School of Management - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
As you learn about classical management theory, you'll be introduced to multiple influential people, such as Fredrick Taylor, Henry Gantt and Chester Barnard. You'll also discover several approaches and theories that make up the classical school of management. By the time you've completed these lessons, you'll be able to do the following:
- Describe the evolution of Classical Management Theory.
- Use Gantt charts and bar graphs in planning and controlling.
- Explain how Henri Fayol's management principles can be applied to departmental organization and staff management.
- Outline the acceptance theory of management.
|Classical Management Theory (1900-1930): Definition||Provide an overview of the evolution of Classical Management Theory by describing the condition of industrial organizations and the nature of work performed within those organizations. Classical Management Theory includes bureaucracy, scientific management and administrative management.|
|Bureaucracy: Max Weber's Theory of Impersonal Management||Describe Max Weber's impersonal management and formalized organization structure approach, also known as the bureaucracy.|
|Classical Scientific School of Management||Describe how the need to increase productivity and efficiency in organizations led to the development of the classical scientific school of management.|
|Fredrick Taylor & Management: Maximizing Productivity & Efficiency||Explore the contributions Fredrick Taylor made to the field of management by studying tasks and incentives to develop fixed procedures to maximize productivity and efficiency.|
|Gantt Charts & Bar Graphs: Henry Gantt's Contributions to Management||Describe the contributions Henry Gantt made to the field of management by creating visual displays used in planning and controlling, including the Gantt chart and bar graph.|
|Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Motion Study||Learn about the contributions this husband-and-wife team made to the field of management, including their famous Motion Study, which provided insight into particular movements that could increase outputs.|
|Classical Administrative School of Management: Managing the Organization||Discuss how the need to consider the total organization by emphasizing management principles led to the development of the classical administrative school of management.|
|Henri Fayol's Management Principles: Managing Departmental Task Organization||Explain principles 1-7 of the 14 principles of management developed by Henri Fayol and how they're used to provide general guidelines for departmental organization and management of staff.|
|Fayol's Theories on Staff Management and Worker Satisfaction||Explain principles 8-14 of the 14 principles of management developed by Henri Fayol and how they're used to provide general guidelines for departmental organization and management of staff.|
|Mary Parker Follett: People-Oriented, Group-Network Management||Discuss the people-oriented, group-network approach to management of Mary Park Follett, including the use of common goals and participative decision making and how those practices have shaped contemporary management practices.|
|Chester Barnard: Informal Organizations and Acceptance Theory||Explore the contributions Chester Barnard made to the field of management, including the development of the information organization and acceptance theory of management.|
1. Classical Management Theory (1900-1930): Definition
It was the rise of the Industrial Revolution and factories were becoming more common. Inside these factories, managers were constantly looking for ways to improve productivity and efficiency. As time moved on, it became apparent that searching for the single best way to do things was the most important thing for managers to do. Thus, classical management theory was born. This lesson will discuss the evolution of classical management theory.
2. Bureaucracy: Max Weber's Theory of Impersonal Management
At a time when organizations were run like families, Max Weber looked for ways to bring a more formalized structure to organizations. Weber created the idea of bureaucratic management where organizations are more authoritative, rigid and structured. This lesson will describe the development of bureaucracy and common characteristics of bureaucratic organizations.
3. Classical Scientific School of Management
The scientific school of management focused on the 'science' of creating specialized work processes and workforce skills to complete production tasks efficiently. This lesson will discuss the development of scientific management and how it is applied by management as illustrated by the classic example of Henry Ford's Model T production line.
4. Frederick Taylor & Management: Maximizing Productivity & Efficiency
Known as the father of scientific management, Frederick Taylor revolutionized management practices. This lesson will discuss the contributions Taylor made to the field of management, most of which are still used today to maximize productivity and efficiency.
5. Gantt Charts & Bar Graphs: Henry Gantt's Contributions to Management
This lesson will describe how Henry Gantt revolutionized management practices by providing a graphical representation, also known as the Gantt chart, of work processes that showed scheduling and monitoring projections. Other contributions of Henry Gantt, such as the task and bonus system, will also be discussed.
6. Henri Fayol's Management Principles: Managing Departmental Task Organization
Prior to Henri Fayol's development of an administrative theory of management, managers took a scientific approach to work, attempting to maximize productivity by treating their workers like machines. Fayol's 14 Principles of Management focus on the entire organization rather than just the work. This lesson covers the first seven of these principles.
7. Fayol's Theories on Staff Management and Worker Satisfaction
In this lesson, we'll discuss how Henri Fayol's final seven principles play out in the workplace. Using a professional restaurant kitchen as an example, you'll learn about the importance of worker satisfaction and other elements of effective management.
8. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Motion Study
This lesson describes the contributions this husband-and-wife team made to the field of management, including their famous motion study, which provided insight into particular movements that could increase outputs.
9. Classical Administrative School of Management: Managing the Organization
Even if a business knows what each of their individual workers ought to be doing, there may not be any overarching mission guiding their work. This lesson describes how the need to consider an entire organization by emphasizing management principles led to the development of the classical administrative school of management.
10. Mary Parker Follett: People-Oriented, Group-Network Management
Leaders in today's organizations utilize common goals and participative decision-making to achieve a people-oriented, group network management approach. Mary Parker Follett developed this classical leadership theory during the pre-war 1920s, and it is still relevant in contemporary business.
11. Chester Barnard: Informal Organizations and Acceptance Theory
Chester Barnard believed that formal organizations are made up of informal groups. These informal groups evolve to become the informal organization. The group's beliefs and values establish the organizational culture and determine, to a large extent, formal acceptance of authority.
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Other chapters within the Business 101: Principles of Management course
- Management Basics
- Behavioral School of Management Theory
- Contemporary and Future School of Management Theory
- Organizational Change
- Organizing in Business Management
- Work Teams
- Leading in Organizations
- Leadership Theory
- Motivation in the Workplace
- Communication in the Workplace
- Controlling in Organizations
- Human Resources
- Strategic Management and Managerial Decision Making
- Production and Quality Assurance
- International Management and Contemporary Issues
- Studying for Business 101