About This Chapter
Thermal Physics and Thermodynamics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Thermal physics is the study of heat science, including the three main areas of kinetic theory, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. At the beginning of the lesson, the instructor will review numerical or temperature measurements of hot and cold. You'll also learn about phase changes, such as when a solid melts or evaporates, and see how a heating curve can show what happens during a chemical transition.
In the latter half of the lesson, the focus will be on the laws of thermodynamics, or how energy can change, but never be created or destroyed. The instructor will also discuss the relationship between gas laws and kinetic molecular theory. When you have finished watching the videos, you should be able to:
- Explain what happens during heat transfer
- Use scientific measurements to calculate heat transfer
- Determine and analyze how changes in size and thickness of an object affect the flow of heat
- Explain the properties and movements of gas particles using kinetic molecular theory
- Use the ideal gas law to calculate the amount, pressure or temperature of a gas
- Define and discuss the laws of thermodynamics and the Carnot cycle
|Introduction to Thermal Physics||Provide a summary of thermal physics.|
|Temperature Scales: Fahrenheit and Celsius||Review temperature scales.|
|Phase Changes and Heating Curves||Describe what happens during a phase change, and interpret a heating curve.|
|The Relationship Between Heat and Temperature||Discuss the relationship between heat and temperature.|
|Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity||Use heat capacities and temperature measurements to calculate the amount of heat transferred.|
|Heat Transfer and Phase Changes||Discuss heat transfer during phase changes.|
|Thermal Expansion||Calculate how changes in thickness and area affect the flow of heat through a slab of material and the temperature difference between the two faces of the slab. Analyze the changes in an object's size and shape when it is heated. Assess the effects of conduction, convection and radiation in thermal processes.|
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases||Show how the kinetic molecular theory can explain the movement of particles and properties of gases.|
|The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant||Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain the relationships among gas volume, temperature, and pressure. Discuss the Gas Constant and its units.|
|Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature or Quantity of a Gas||Reconfigure the ideal gas law to calculate the pressure, volume, temperature or quantity of a gas when the other three variables are known.|
|The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics||Discuss the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and its consequences.|
|First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy||Describe the Law of Conservation of Energy and its application to all energy types.|
|Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy and Systems||Define entropy, and develop examples of how the entropy of a system increases over time.|
|The Carnot Cycle||Explain the Carnot cycle.|
1. Introduction to Thermal Physics
After watching this lesson you will be able to explain what thermal physics is, as well as the various areas of study and topics that make it up. A short quiz will follow.
2. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvin and Celsius
Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.
3. Phase Changes and Heating Curves
Learn the phases - gas, liquid, solid and plasma. Learn what a phase diagram is and what terms describe the movement between phases: melting, sublimating, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and deposition. Discover why heating curves have plateaus, what a phase transition is, and what happens during this transition.
4. Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams
Did you know that temperature and heat are not the same thing? Did you know that the temperature of water doesn't change when it boils? This lesson describes the relationship between heat and temperature. Diagrams are used to illustrate the relationship between heat and temperature during phase changes.
5. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
6. Heat Transfer & Phase Changes
After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what heat transfer is and describe the various phase changes that can result from heat transfer in terms of the position of the molecules. You will also be able to give the names of those phase changes. A short quiz will follow.
7. Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer
After watching this video, you will be able to explain how heat transfers by conduction through a slab of material, explain how the shape and size of an object varies as it expands, and solve problems involving conduction. A short quiz will follow.
8. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
9. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
10. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas
In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.
11. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
After watching this video, you will be able to state the zeroth law of thermodynamics, what it means, and why it is important. A short quiz will follow.
12. First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy
This video describes the first law of thermodynamics. Several examples of the application of this law are discussed. The significance of the law and its practical application are discussed as well.
13. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy and Systems
In this lesson, we'll learn about the second law of thermodynamics. By studying this law, you'll understand how energy works and why we're all moving towards eventual chaos and disorder.
14. Efficiency & the Carnot Cycle: Equations & Examples
After watching this video, you will be able to explain the Carnot Cycle, including what it represents and how it works, and calculate the efficiency of a particular Carnot engine. A short quiz will follow.
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