About This Chapter
Who's It For:
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering thermodynamic processes material will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn thermodynamic processes. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding thermodynamic processes
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about thermodynamic processes
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How It Works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Thermodynamic Processes chapter exam.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Thermodynamic Processes chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about thermodynamic processes. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students Will Review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a thermodynamic processes unit of a standard physical chemistry course. Topics covered include:
- State functions in thermochemistry
- Enthalpy in chemical and physical reactions
- Bond energy
- Calculating enthalpy change using Hess's Law
- Entropy in chemical and physical changes
- Free energy and spontaneity
- Standard enthalpy of formation
- How enthalpy (H), free energy (G) and entropy (S) are related
- Endothermic and exothermic reactions
1. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
2. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
3. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
4. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
5. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
6. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
7. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
8. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
9. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
10. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation
Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.
11. Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Explanation & Calculations
In this video lesson, we learn about the standard enthalpies of formation of substances. We will also learn how we can use these values as one way to calculate the standard enthalpy change of a chemical reaction.
12. Chemical vs. Physical Adsorption
In this lesson, we discuss the meanings and differences between chemical adsorption (chemisorption) and physical adsorption (physisorption). These are important processes that occur all around us every day.
13. Adsorption Chromatography: Definition & Example
Adsorption chromatography was the first actual form of chromatography discovered. In this lesson we will learn what it is and look at specific examples of how it is used.
14. Adsorption Chromatography: Applications & Types
In this lesson, we will learn about the three types of adsorption chromatography and we will also learn the pros and cons of each type and how they are applied.
15. Adsorption: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we will discuss the process of adsorption/desorption and contrast it to the process of absorption. We will discuss several examples of each process.
16. Adsorption vs. Desorption
Adsorption and desorption are opposite mechanisms that both play an important role in chemical reactions. We'll take a look at enzyme mechanics and chromatography to see how they can work together.
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