About This Chapter
Thermodynamics, Energy & Reactions - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter will provide you with a comprehensive overview of thermodynamics, including energy transfer and reactions. By the end of this chapter, you will have explored:
- Laws of thermodynamics
- Thermochemistry and state functions
- Enthalpy and Hess' Law
- The bond energy equation
- Predicting entropy and the spontaneity of a reaction
- Standard enthalpy of formation
- Connection between enthalpy, free energy and entropy
- Exothermic and endothermic reactions
We strive to keep the studying experience inviting as well as effective. Our expert instructors have developed engaging video lessons that illustrate the material for you to easily absorb and retain the information. Video transcripts are available as a great resource for taking notes. After each lesson, take a self-assessment quiz to gauge your understanding of the topics. When you've completed the chapter, take a cumulative test to apply all that you've learned.
1. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
2. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
After watching this video, you will be able to state the zeroth law of thermodynamics, what it means, and why it is important. A short quiz will follow.
3. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
4. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
5. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation
Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.
6. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
7. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
8. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
9. Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Explanation & Calculations
In this video lesson, we learn about the standard enthalpies of formation of substances. We will also learn how we can use these values as one way to calculate the standard enthalpy change of a chemical reaction.
10. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
11. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
12. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
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Other chapters within the OSAT Chemistry (CEOE) (004): Practice & Study Guide course
- The Nature of Science & Chemistry
- The Role of Science in Society
- Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table
- The Properties of Matter & Elements
- Liquids, Solids & Phase Changes
- Gas Laws, Properties & Relationships
- Chemical Bonding & Intermolecular Forces
- Inorganic & Organic Compounds
- Chemical Reactions, Rates & Energy
- Equilibrium Principles
- Acids, Bases & Equilibrium
- Redox Reactions & Electrochemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry & Chemical Reactions
- OSAT Chemistry (CEOE) (004) Flashcards