About This Chapter
Thermodynamics in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
A branch of physical science, thermodynamics involves the study of heat in relationship to chemical, electrical, mechanical or other forms of energy. In this chapter, you'll learn about the two basic laws of thermodynamics, including how energy can't be created or destroyed. You'll also find out how to perform energy-related calculations and measurements. When you've finished the chapter, you should also be familiar with these additional key topics:
- State functions of molecules or compounds
- Thermodynamic quantities, including enthalpy and free energy
- Bond energy and chemical bond strength measurements
- Hess's Law of Constant Heat and how it pertains to enthalpy and state functions
- Calorimetry and how heat capacity and transfers are measured
- Electrochemistry and the relationship between chemistry and electrical occurrences
|The Laws of Thermodynamics||Understand chemical reactions; define the first and second laws of thermodynamics.|
|State Functions in Thermochemistry||Define and explain the importance of state function with examples.|
|Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes||Identify how energy is transferred in a physical or chemical process; use thermochemical equations to calculate the amount of heat energy transferred in a reaction.|
|Bond Energy: Breaking the Bond||Define and discuss bond energy.|
|Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction||Compute changes in thermodynamic quantities during a chemical reaction.|
|Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity||Use temperature calculations and heat capacities to compute the amount of heat transferred.|
|Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes||Define entropy and predict the deltaS sign for physical and chemical changes.|
|Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction||Forecast the unexpected occurrence of a chemical reaction.|
|Standard Enthalpy Formation||Identify formation reactions and enthalpic changes; compute the enthalpic change of a reaction.|
|The Relationship between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)||Calculate the deltaG, deltaS or deltaH at a given temperature using the other two values.|
|Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy||Explain the relationship between E cell and deltaG cell equilibrium constants.|
|Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions||Define the terms and how they affect reactions.|
|Catalysts and Energy Dynamics||Use a diagram to illustrate and explain the difference between a catalyst and an uncatalyzed reaction.|
1. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
2. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
3. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
4. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation
Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.
5. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
6. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
7. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
8. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
9. Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Explanation & Calculations
In this video lesson, we learn about the standard enthalpies of formation of substances. We will also learn how we can use these values as one way to calculate the standard enthalpy change of a chemical reaction.
10. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
11. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
12. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
13. Effect of Catalysts on Rates of Reaction
In this video lesson, we will learn how catalysts speed up chemical reactions. We'll also discuss how catalysts are used in industry and consider the catalysts in our own bodies. A short quiz will test your new knowledge.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry
- Chemistry: Homeschool Assignments & Projects