About This Chapter
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- Students who have fallen behind in understanding state functions in thermochemistry or working with energy diagrams
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How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Thermodynamics in Physical Science chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a Thermodynamics unit of a standard college physical science course. Topics covered include:
- The laws of thermodynamics
- The transformation of energy in living organisms
- How to calculate specific heat capacity for different substances
- Phase changes and heating curves
- Mechanical equivalent of heat
- Enthalpy, free energy and entropy
1. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
2. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
3. Energy and Life: The Transformation of Energy in Living Organisms
While the sun is an excellent source of energy, not all forms of life can utilize the sun's energy directly. This lesson describes how plants transform the sun's energy into potential energy stored in sugar, how living organisms utilize energy in sugar to perform work, and how the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration is necessary for life.
4. Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams
Did you know that temperature and heat are not the same thing? Did you know that the temperature of water doesn't change when it boils? This lesson describes the relationship between heat and temperature. Diagrams are used to illustrate the relationship between heat and temperature during phase changes.
5. How to Calculate Specific Heat Capacity for Different Substances
This lesson describes specific heat capacity and explains how the specific heat capacity of water helps to maintain a relatively constant temperature in nature. Learn how to identify the specific heat capacity of other common materials and how to calculate specific heat capacity with an experiment.
6. Phase Changes and Heating Curves
Learn the phases - gas, liquid, solid and plasma. Learn what a phase diagram is and what terms describe the movement between phases: melting, sublimating, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and deposition. Discover why heating curves have plateaus, what a phase transition is, and what happens during this transition.
7. States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter
The world around us is constantly changing. Chemists put those changes into two main categories: physical changes and chemical changes. This lesson will define and provide examples of each.
8. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
We all know when we feel heat, but do you know how or when it was discovered? In this lesson, we learn about the revolutionary findings of James Prescott Joule who discovered how to get heat out of mechanical work.
9. Heat Transfer & Phase Changes
After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what heat transfer is and describe the various phase changes that can result from heat transfer in terms of the position of the molecules. You will also be able to give the names of those phase changes. A short quiz will follow.
10. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
11. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
12. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
13. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
14. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
15. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
16. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
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Other chapters within the Physical Science: Help and Review course
- Newton's Laws of Motion: Help and Review
- Energy and Momentum: Help and Review
- Waves and Optics: Help and Review
- Electric Power & Electricity: Help and Review
- Magnetism: Help and Review
- Properties of Matter in Chemistry: Help and Review
- Elements, Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions: Help and Review
- Bonding in Chemistry: Help and Review
- Gases & Gas Laws: Help and Review
- Kinetics in Chemistry: Help and Review
- The Periodic Table in Physical Science: Help and Review
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids in Chemistry: Help and Review
- Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure: Help and Review
- Stoichiometry in Physical Science: Help and Review
- Radioactivity: Help and Review
- Acids, Bases, and Reactions in Chemistry: Help and Review
- Equilibrium in Physical Science: Help and Review
- Chemistry Lab Basics