# Ch 11: Thermodynamics in Physics

### About This Chapter

## Thermodynamics in Physics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

This chapter focuses on heat transfer and uses for the first and second laws of thermodynamics. You'll learn how to convert between Kelvin and Celsius and interpret a heating curve, then see examples for heat transfer through conduction and convection. Instructors will introduce you to the Ideal Gas Law and provide step-by-step instructions for calculating entropy of a closed system. When you've watched all the lessons in this chapter, you'll have knowledge of:

- Relationship between temperature and heat
- Events during a phase change
- Importance of thermal expansion
- Gas constant
- Heat engines

Video | Objectives |
---|---|

Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius | Explain the relationship between the Kelvin scale and Celsius scale and understand how to convert between the two scales. |

Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams | Describe the relationship between temperature and heat. Discuss latent heat. |

Phase Changes and Heating Curves | Examine what happens during a phase change and interpret a heating curve. |

How to Calculate Specific Heat Capacity for Different Substances | Understand specific heat and its relationship to temperature and energy. |

Heat Transfer Through Conduction: Equation & Examples | Demonstrate heat transfer through conduction using an equation. Explore examples of this process. |

Heat Transfer Through Convection: Natural vs. Forced | Differentiate between natural convection and forced convection. |

Heat Transfer Through Radiation & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Radiation | Examine the process of heat transfer through radiation and apply the Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Radiation. |

Thermal Expansion: Importance & Examples | Explain how solids, liquids and gases expand with increasing temperature. |

The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant | Explain the relationships between gas volume, temperature and pressure using the Ideal Gas equation. |

Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas | Use the ideal gas law to calculate the pressure, volume, temperature or amount of gas given the other three variables. |

First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy | Describe this law and explain its uses. |

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy and Systems | Use examples to determine how the entropy of a system increases over time. |

Entropy: Equation and Calculations | Understand the equation for calculating the entropy of a closed system and perform calculations. |

Heat Engines and Efficiency | Explain the concept of a heat engine and the meaning of efficiency. |

### 1. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius

Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.

### 2. Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams

Did you know that temperature and heat are not the same thing? Did you know that the temperature of water doesn't change when it boils? This lesson describes the relationship between heat and temperature. Diagrams are used to illustrate the relationship between heat and temperature during phase changes.

### 3. Phase Changes and Heating Curves

Learn the phases - gas, liquid, solid and plasma. Learn what a phase diagram is and what terms describe the movement between phases: melting, sublimating, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and deposition. Discover why heating curves have plateaus, what a phase transition is, and what happens during this transition.

### 4. How to Calculate Specific Heat Capacity for Different Substances

This lesson describes specific heat capacity and explains how the specific heat capacity of water helps to maintain a relatively constant temperature in nature. Learn how to identify the specific heat capacity of other common materials and how to calculate specific heat capacity with an experiment.

### 5. Heat Transfer Through Conduction: Equation & Examples

After watching this lesson, you should be able to explain how heat transfers by conduction, give examples of conduction and complete conduction calculations. A short quiz will follow.

### 6. Heat Transfer Through Convection: Natural vs. Forced

After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain what convection is, both natural and forced, give some examples of convection, and complete some basic calculations. A short quiz will follow.

### 7. Radiation, Heat Transfer & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

After watching this lesson, you will be able to explain how radiative heat transfer works, give some real-life examples of radiation, and use the Stefan-Boltzmann Law to complete radiation calculations. A short quiz will follow.

### 8. Thermal Expansion: Importance & Examples

After watching this video, you will be able to explain what thermal expansion is, why it is important, provide some examples of thermal expansion in real life and complete basic thermal expansion calculations. A short quiz will follow.

### 9. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.

### 10. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas

In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.

### 11. First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy

This video describes the first law of thermodynamics. Several examples of the application of this law are discussed. The significance of the law and its practical application are discussed as well.

### 12. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy and Systems

In this lesson, we'll learn about the second law of thermodynamics. By studying this law, you'll understand how energy works and why we're all moving towards eventual chaos and disorder.

### 13. Entropy: Equation & Calculations

After watching this lesson, you will be able to apply the concept of entropy to real life situations and complete calculations of entropy for a closed system. A short quiz will follow.

### 14. Heat Engines & Efficiency

After watching this video lesson, you will be able to explain what a heat engine is, how it works from a thermodynamic perspective, and complete some simple calculations involving the efficiency of a heat engine. A short quiz will follow.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the UExcel Physics: Study Guide & Test Prep course

- Introduction to Physics
- Vectors
- Kinematics
- Force and the Laws of Motion
- Work and Energy in Physics
- Linear Momentum in Physics
- Rotational Motion
- Equilibrium and Elasticity
- Waves, Sound, and Light
- Fluids in Physics
- Electrostatics
- Circuits in Physics
- The Physics of Magnetism
- Wave Optics
- Relativity
- Modern Physics & Nuclear Physics
- UExcel Physics Flashcards