About This Chapter
Thermodynamics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you'll have the opportunity to explore that elusive chemistry concept known as energy and its relationship to the world we live in. Through a series of fun-to-watch videos, you'll discover how energy is transferred during a chemical reaction or process, and find out how to work with a thermochemical equation.
Using visuals, your instructors will also provide you with an easy-to-understand explanation of Hess's Law and other complex topics that you'll be sure to remember. When you've finished watching the video lessons and taking the online self-assessment quizzes, you should have an understanding of the following topics:
- State functions and their relationship to thermochemistry
- Enthalpy and how energy is transferred
- Entropy of chemical and physical changes
- Calorimetric measurements and heat transfer
- Cell potential energy and free energy in electrochemistry
|State Functions in Thermochemistry||Provide a definition of a state function; discuss why it is so important in thermochemistry.|
|Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes||Describe how energy is transferred during a chemical or physical process. Use a thermochemical equation to determine how much heat energy is transferred in a reaction.|
|Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction||Apply Hess's Law to the change in enthalpy of a chemical reaction.|
|Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity||Use heat capacities and temperature measurements to compute the amount of heat transferred.|
|Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes||Provide a definition of entropy; calculate the sign of ?S for chemical and physical changes.|
|Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction||Given ?H and ?S, calculate the effect of temperature on spontaneity.|
|The Relationship between Enthalpy (H), Entropy (S) and Free Energy (G)||Find the remaining quantity when provided with two out of the three quantities at a given temperature.|
|Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy||Discuss how E°cell, ?G° and equilibrium constants relate to each other.|
1. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
2. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
3. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
4. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
5. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
6. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
7. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
8. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy
Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.
9. The Relationship Between Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
In this lesson, we learn the important connection between free energy and the equilibrium constant. We will begin by considering systems under non-standard conditions to derive the relationship. We will see how to relate the free energy change to the extent of a chemical reaction.
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