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Ch 4: Thinking & Problem Solving

About This Chapter

This chapter on thinking and problem solving helps to clarify principles of ancient Greek philosophy, deductive reasoning, and theories of cognitive development. These brief lessons and quizzes can help you prepare for an exam or be used as a supplement to your textbook or classroom materials.

Thinking & Problem Solving - Chapter Summary

While going through these lessons, you can deepen your knowledge of concepts related to thinking and problem solving. This self-paced chapter covers theories from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky and can also help you understand why social interactions are important to cognitive development. After reviewing the lessons, you should be ready to:

  • Discuss the roots of psychology in ancient Greek philosophy
  • Explain how Gestalt theory influences therapy
  • Describe how we process information in our daily lives
  • List Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
  • Recall Lev Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development
  • Discuss how concepts influence the way you think about the world
  • Provide examples of problem-solving strategies

These convenient lessons help you quickly grasp concepts related to thinking and problem solving. A brief quiz is available to test your knowledge of each lesson, and the quizzes can also be printed for use as a helpful offline study tool. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold for quick reference and review.

8 Lessons in Chapter 4: Thinking & Problem Solving
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Ancient Greek Philosophy: Introspection & Associationism

1. Ancient Greek Philosophy: Introspection & Associationism

Psychology is not a discipline we often associate with philosophy, but they actually share a common heritage. In this lesson, we will explore the roots of psychology in ancient Greek philosophy.

Gestalt Theory and Approaches to Counseling

2. Gestalt Theory and Approaches to Counseling

What is gestalt theory, and how can it influence therapy? In this lesson, we'll look at gestalt theory, the types of resistance to contact that can cause psychological issues, and how gestalt theorists treat patients.

What is Information Processing? - Definition & Stages

3. What is Information Processing? - Definition & Stages

How do we interact with and process information in our daily lives? Psychologists use the theory of information processing to explain it. They also use the theory to talk about our stages of memory.

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

4. Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development that described and explained the changes in logical thinking of children and adolescents. Within that theory, he identified four stages of cognitive development through which all learners must proceed. This lesson will introduce you to and differentiate between those stages.

Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development

5. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development

The role of culture and social interactions are imperative to cognitive development, according to psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. This lesson will discuss how social interactions play a role in cognitive development of children, provide an overview of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory and describe the stages of speech and language development.

Using Concepts to Classify the World

6. Using Concepts to Classify the World

What has wings, feathers, and lives in a nest? That's not a riddle; it's a concept. Watch this lesson to find out more about what concepts are, what a prototype is, and how typicality influences the way you think about the world.

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

7. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

This lesson explores the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in the form of psychological experiments. In addition to defining these terms, the lesson gives examples to explain how this reasoning is applied.

Types of Problems & Problem Solving Strategies

8. Types of Problems & Problem Solving Strategies

We solve hundreds of small problems everyday. This lesson covers different types of problems, such as routine vs. non-routine, and many of the different problem-solving strategies we use, including algorithms, heuristics, graphic representations and the IDEAL Strategy.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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