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Ch 4: Thinking & Problem Solving

About This Chapter

This chapter on thinking and problem solving helps to clarify principles of ancient Greek philosophy, deductive reasoning, and theories of cognitive development. These brief lessons and quizzes can help you prepare for an exam or be used as a supplement to your textbook or classroom materials.

Thinking & Problem Solving - Chapter Summary

While going through these lessons, you can deepen your knowledge of concepts related to thinking and problem solving. This self-paced chapter covers theories from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky and can also help you understand why social interactions are important to cognitive development. After reviewing the lessons, you should be ready to:

  • Discuss the roots of psychology in ancient Greek philosophy
  • Explain how Gestalt theory influences therapy
  • Describe how we process information in our daily lives
  • List Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
  • Recall Lev Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development
  • Discuss how concepts influence the way you think about the world
  • Provide examples of problem-solving strategies

These convenient lessons help you quickly grasp concepts related to thinking and problem solving. A brief quiz is available to test your knowledge of each lesson, and the quizzes can also be printed for use as a helpful offline study tool. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold for quick reference and review.

8 Lessons in Chapter 4: Thinking & Problem Solving
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Ancient Greek Philosophy: Introspection & Associationism

1. Ancient Greek Philosophy: Introspection & Associationism

Psychology is not a discipline we often associate with philosophy, but they actually share a common heritage. In this lesson, we will explore the roots of psychology in ancient Greek philosophy.

Gestalt Theory and Approaches to Counseling

2. Gestalt Theory and Approaches to Counseling

The Gestalt theory is the study of an individual as the sum of their experiences and emotions, while also being more than those parts. Learn more about the Gestalt theory, its components--introjection, projection, confluence, retroflection, or deflection--and how it is implemented in therapy and psychological treatments.

What is Information Processing? - Definition & Stages

3. What is Information Processing? - Definition & Stages

Information processing theory is used by psychologists to describe the stages of how individuals receive, decipher, and react to daily occurrences in their lives. Learn more about the definition of the stages included in information processing theory and the role of the three stages of memory.

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

4. Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Psychologist Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development explains how logical thinking develops and changes in children and adolescents. Learn about Piaget's theory, including the four stages that Piaget argued all learners pass through as they develop their cognitive abilities. Review the thinking capabilities that children develop in each stage, and explore the concepts of egocentrism, conservation, and reversibility.

Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development

5. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development

Psychologist Lev Vygotsky argued that cognitive development is greatly impacted by culture and social interactions. Learn about Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development, including the theory's six assumptions. Explore the four stages of speech development identified by Vygotsky.

Using Concepts to Classify the World

6. Using Concepts to Classify the World

The human mind understands how to classify things using concepts. In this lesson, the reader will see how our minds accomplish this, and varying degrees of understanding of prototypes and typicality.

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

7. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

Inductive reasoning makes use of evidence to come to a conclusion whereas deductive reasoning finds evidence to support a conclusion. Study the differences and examples of inductive and deductive reasoning that are used to understand science.

Types of Problems & Problem Solving Strategies

8. Types of Problems & Problem Solving Strategies

Prior to implementing your problem-solving strategies, you should know what types of problems are you facing. Learn about the different types of problems according to educational psychology and review some of the different problem-solving strategies we use, including algorithms, heuristics, graphic representations and the IDEAL strategy.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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More Exams
There are even more practice exams available in Thinking & Problem Solving.

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