About This Chapter
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Anyone who needs help learning or mastering topics in philosophy since 1600 will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about important philosophy topics since the year 1600. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding topics in philosophy since 1600, such as substantive reality, rational ignorance and virtue ethics
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Students Will Review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a philosophy since 1600 unit of a standard philosophy course. Topics covered include:
- Virtue ethics vs. utilitarianism and deontological ethics
- The philosophy of rationalism
- Differences between empiricism and rationalism
- Effect of rational ignorance
- Examples of instrumental rationality
- Comparison of instrumental rationality and value rationality
- Substantive rationality vs. formal rationality
- The history of Karl Popper's critical rationalism
- The similarities and differences between Cartesian rationalism and Lockean rationalism
- Rational irrationality vs. rational ignorance
- The economics of Caplan's rational irrationality
- Platinga's modal ontological argument for God
- Contrast between existentialism and nihilism
- Examples of existential nihilism in literature
1. Virtue Ethics vs. Utilitarianism
The primary difference between utilitarianism and virtue ethics is the mode and means of human fulfillment. This lesson describes these two philosophical views and explores their positions on the individual versus the community and contemplation versus action.
2. Virtue Ethics vs. Deontological Ethics
In this lesson, you'll learn about Aristotle's philosophy of virtue ethics and Kant's deontological philosophy of ethics. You'll also learn how to distinguish between these two competing ethical conceptualizations.
3. What is Rationalism? - Definition & Philosophy
Rationalism is a fairly straight-forward way of thinking that promotes the belief that knowledge can be gained outside of experience. In fact, rationalism essentially functions with the notion that experience isn't necessary to acquire knowledge.
4. Rationalism vs. Empiricism: Similarities & Differences
Rationalism and empiricism are philosophical schools of thought that are fundamentally the opposite of each other. Their beliefs on the nature of reality come from a skeptical analysis of the opposing philosophy's beliefs.
5. Rational Ignorance: Definition & Effect
In this lesson, you'll learn about rational ignorance. We'll explore its meaning, origins, applications, and effects and cover topics like widespread voter ignorance and the potential ramifications of this phenomenon.
6. Instrumental Rationality: Definition & Examples
What do we mean when we say we're acting rationally? In this lesson, we'll talk about the philosophical concept of instrumental rationality, or an approach to thinking and action that focuses on using the most efficient means possible to achieve an end.
7. Karl Popper's Critical Rationalism: Definition & History
How do scientists decide if the theory they put forward is reliable or not? In this lesson, psychologist Karl Popper and his theory of critical rationalism is defined and the reason behind creating the theory is discussed.
8. Rational Ignorance vs. Rational Irrationality
Do people who vote do so in a rational way? This lesson looks at the rational irrationality of Bryan Caplan and compares it to rational ignorance. The lesson defines terms, provides examples of each and then looks at Caplan's argument for rational irrationality.
9. Caplan's Rational Irrationality: Definition & Economics
Is all thought rational? This lesson looks at how people make decisions. In this lesson, the theory of rational irrationality is explored and then examples are provided as to economics, politics, personal finance, and religion.
10. Plantinga's Modal Ontological Argument for God
Dr. Alvin Plantinga is regarded as one of the foremost religious philosophers of the contemporary era. His modal ontological argument for foundational religious necessity is seen as an almost airtight defense of religion.
11. Existentialism vs. Nihilism
Nihilism and existentialism are basically polar opposite philosophies. While nihilists are skeptical of everything, even their own existence, existentialists are interested in more closely examining existence, especially human existence.
12. Existential Nihilism in Literature: Books & Quotes
Literature loves to explore the philosophical thought of existential nihilism. From Shakespeare's 'Macbeth' to Chuck Palahniuk's 'Fight Club', the revelation that life is devoid of any purpose pervades these works. Man discovers how insignificant he really is.
13. Ontology vs. Epistemology: Differences & Examples
Let's look at two branches of philosophy: ontology and epistemology. In this lesson, we will discuss their differences and similarities and the most influential thinkers of each branch.
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