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Ch 9: Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis

About This Chapter

This chapter can be used to help you understand the processes of transcription and translation in genetics. Study for an exam or get extra help to complete your homework by completing this chapter.

Transcription and Translation Processes - Chapter Summary

Your understanding of the processes of transcription and translation is the key to understanding genetic codes, DNA, and RNA. This chapter provides you with the opportunity to explore this important information through interesting lessons and quizzes. The entire chapter is mobile-friendly, and the worksheets can be printed out to take with you for more practice. Complete the lessons at your own convenience, because they are self-paced. When you have finished, you should be able to provide the answers to these questions:

  • What is included in each step of the transcription process from RNA to DNA?
  • How does gene expression work?
  • In what ways does an operon affect gene transcription?
  • What are introns and extrons?
  • What is the link between genetic code and amino acids?
  • What is the definition of tRNA and anticodons?
  • What happens during each step of the translation of mRNA to protein?

8 Lessons in Chapter 9: Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

7. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

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