About This Chapter
Transcription & Translation in DNA & RNA - Chapter Summary
While going through these lessons, you will deepen your understanding of transcription and translation in DNA and RNA. Some of the topics covered include gene sequences and transcriptional repression and induction. You can also gain a better understanding of the differences between RNA and DNA. After reviewing the lessons, you should be ready to:
- Explain how the cell uses three types of RNA effectively
- Discuss the relationship between central dogma and protein synthesis
- Explain the manner in which DNA is transcribed into RNA
- Recall how we regulate the expression of our genes
- Describe translation of RNA into a series of amino acids
- Provide an explanation for translation of genetic code into polypeptide
- Explain how mRNA and gene sequences are determined
Each lesson in this chapter is accompanied by a matching quiz and a full written transcript. Timeline links allow you to skip around in the videos to review only the topics you need to review. If you get stuck on a topic, you can use the Help feature to submit questions to instructors.
1. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
2. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
3. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
4. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
5. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
6. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
7. Determining mRNA & Gene Sequences
DNA and RNA are both important for expressing genes. This lesson will demonstrate how to determine mRNA sequences using DNA, and how to determine DNA sequences using mRNA.
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