About This Chapter
Types of Chemical Reactions - Chapter Summary
The video lessons in this chapter are a great way to reinforce what your middle schoolers are learning about chemical reactions in the classroom. They can be watched as many times as needed to clarify any difficult concepts. The videos have been created to be simple and fun ways to learn You'll also find short, multiple-choice lesson quizzes useful for assessing comprehension and the chapter exam can reassure you they've retained the information.
Chapter Lessons & Objectives
|What is a Chemical Reaction? - Definition & Effects||Define chemical reactions and study their effects.|
|Rate of a Chemical Reaction: Modifying Factors||Discover what factors influence how fast chemical reactions take place and more.|
|Rate of a Chemical Reaction: Temperature||Apply the rate law and Arrhenius equation to chemical reactions and understand the influence of temperature on reaction rate.|
|Chemical Reaction Catalyst: Rates & Overview||Learn the significance of catalysts and how they work.|
|Acids and Bases||Use the pH scale to measure acids and bases and understand their relationship to neutral substances like water.|
|Weak Acids, Weak Bases and Buffers||Understand how buffers work, buffer systems in blood and the interaction between weak acids and bases.|
|Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions||Learn how to predict products of composition reactions involving oxygen, two metals and a metal and nonmetal, as well as decomposition reactions of metal carbonates, chlorates and hydroxides.|
|Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions||Use enthalpy to differentiate exothermic and endothermic reactions.|
|How to Write and Balance Chemical Reactions||See how chemical reactions are responsible for things like Halloween glow sticks, table salt and transport of oxygen and wastes in the blood.|
|Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula||Assign oxidation numbers to elements and compounds.|
|Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents||Balance redox reactions and understand the relationship between oxidizing/reducing agents and oxidized/reduced compounds and elements.|
|Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions||Learn how water is formed, what it means to be amphoteric and how conjugate acids and bases work.|
|Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations||Predict the formation of precipitates in aqueous chemical reactions and learn how to use double replacement reactions and how to write net ionic equations.|
|Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation||Write mole ratios and solve problems involving moles.|
|Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calcuations||Make stoichiometric calculations using ratios of moles and relate mole ratios to mass.|
|Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution||Set up stoichiometric calculations with gases and solutions.|
|Limiting Reactants & Calculating Excess Reactants||Identify limiting reactants and calculate amount of product produced with limiting and excess reactants.|
|Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant||Determine and differentiate theoretical, ideal, actual and percent yield.|
|Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula From Empirical Data||Write formulas using hydrates and anhydrates.|
1. What Is a Chemical Reaction? - Definition & Effects
Sometimes, molecules look different on the outside, but only their physical appearance has changed. Other times, through chemical reactions, molecules change both inside and out, meaning both their physical and chemical properties have changed.
2. Rate of a Chemical Reaction: Modifying Factors
Why are some reactions much faster than others? Is it possible to change how fast a reaction occurs? In this lesson, you will learn what the rate of a chemical reaction is. You will also discover how factors such as temperature, concentration, surface area, and catalysts impact reaction rates.
3. Rate of a Chemical Reaction: Effect of Temperature
Learn how temperature affects reaction rates. Discover the rate law as well as how the Arrhenius equation relates to the rate law and predicts the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction.
4. Chemical Reaction Catalyst: Rates & Overview
Catalysts are common in both industrial processes and in the human body. This lesson will explain how they work and why we need them. A quiz will test our knowledge.
5. Acids and Bases
Have you ever wondered how we measure the acidity of liquids? Check out this lesson to see how acids and bases are measured on a pH scale and how they relate to neutral solutions, such as water.
6. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
7. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
8. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
9. Basic Properties of Chemical Reactions
Learn how about the various components of a chemical reaction, and how those components function. Use this lesson to understand the basic properties of different kinds of chemical reactions.
10. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
11. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
12. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
13. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
14. Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation
Learn what a mole ratio is and how to determine and write the mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical equation in this video lesson. Also, learn to make mole-to-mole calculations and solve problems involving moles of substances.
15. Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations
Learn how to set up and make mole to mass, mass to mole and mass to mass stoichiometric calculations. Learn how the ratios of moles helps you compare and make calculations. Learn how to relate mole ratios to molar mass.
16. Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution
In this lesson, learn about molar volume and how to set up and make stoichiometric calculations with gases. Then learn about solution stoichiometry and how to make stoichiometric calculations with solutions.
17. Limiting Reactants & Calculating Excess Reactants
In this lesson, you'll learn about limiting and excess reactants and how to determine which reactant is the limiting one in a chemical reaction when given the amount of each reactant, and also how to calculate the amount of product produced.
18. Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant
Learn what the theoretical yield, actual yield and percent yield are. Given the limiting reactant, learn how to calculate the theoretical reaction yield, which is also known as the ideal reaction yield and percentage yield.
19. Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula From Empirical Data
Learn the definition of a hydrate and an anhydrate in this lesson. Discover how, when given experimental data, you can determine the formula of a hydrate by following simple steps that include finding the moles of hydrate and anhydrate and comparing the two to write the formula.
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