About This Chapter
Types of Fallacies - Chapter Summary
This chapter offers a comprehensive explanation of various fallacies and ways they weaken arguments. Whether you're looking for more information about equivocation, false dilemma or denying the antecedent fallacies, our fun lessons can help. View the lessons in your preferred format, choosing from entertaining videos or written transcripts. The quizzes accompanying the lessons make it easy to check your knowledge of different types of fallacies. These resources are accessible around-the-clock via any computer, smartphone or tablet. Once you've completed this chapter, you will be ready to:
- Explain why using fallacies in arguments can be problematic
- Define and share examples of ad hominem, begging the question and appeal to popularity fallacies
- Offer examples of appeal to ignorance and post hoc fallacies
- Describe slippery slope and naturalistic fallacies
- Provide the definition and examples of the affirming the consequent fallacy
1. Philosophical Fallacies & Argumentation
In this lesson, learn how fallacies are sometimes used when arguing one's case and why they are problematic. Consider examples of fallacies in everyday life and relate them to fallacies in philosophy.
2. Ad Hominem Fallacy: Definition & Examples
The ad hominem fallacy is one of the most common ways that people make bad arguments. Learn what an ad hominem fallacy is, see why we should avoid making ad hominem fallacies, and see examples of what an ad hominem fallacy looks like in this lesson!
3. Begging the Question Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you'll learn how to identify a type of faulty logic known as begging the question. You'll be able to pinpoint when others are using this fallacy in their arguments and avoid confusion with other ways people use the phrase.
4. Equivocation Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson explains how a person's argument can be made weaker by using words ambiguously. You'll also learn the importance of consistency and clarity when repeating a word or phrase more than once in your argument.
5. Appeal to Popularity Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson discusses the flaw of focusing on popular opinion when making your case. You'll consider examples of how this fallacy emerges and why popularity is not reliable in drawing a conclusion.
6. False Dilemma Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson explores the false dilemma fallacy and how it can be misleading. You'll learn how to pinpoint this error in arguments from many different types of people in a variety of situations.
7. Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, consider the tendency we have to use our own ignorance and lack of information to arrive at shaky conclusions. Determine when a person is shifting the burden of proof away from themselves.
8. Post Hoc Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, identify a common error in thinking about cause and effect relationships. Learn about the post hoc fallacy and how tempting it can be to make this particular mistake.
9. Slippery Slope Fallacy: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you'll consider the type of argument that claims that if one thing happens, a chain of events will occur as a result. Learn to identify slippery slope arguments and what makes them problematic.
10. Naturalistic Fallacy: Definition & Examples
Learn about a controversial fallacy and why some philosophers do not agree that flawed thinking is involved in this form of argument in this lesson. Consider some concrete examples and various approaches to this problem.
11. Denying the Antecedent Fallacy: Definition & Examples
Consider one type of mistake that can be made when using conditional statements to come to a conclusion. Learn what it means to deny the antecedent and how to avoid this form of fallacy.
12. Affirming the Consequent Fallacy: Definition & Examples
Learn how to draw better conclusions by exploring the flaws in the affirming the consequent fallacy. You will be able to spot this problem even when the argument sounds logical.
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Other chapters within the Philosophy 101: Intro to Philosophy course
- Introduction to Philosophy & Logic
- Free Will & Determinism
- Self, Mind & Soul in Philosophy
- God in Philosophy
- Religion & Philosophy
- Reality in Philosophy
- Philosophy in Science
- Intro to Epistemology
- Ancient Epistemology
- Modern Epistemology
- Contemporary Epistemology
- Political Philosophy
- Philosophy & Social Justice
- Studying for Philosophy 101