About This Chapter
Foundations of Society - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The video lessons in this Foundations of Society chapter are designed to familiarize learners with various cultural norms and elements. They highlight topics such as popular cultures, subcultures and socialization agents. After you have watched the lessons in this chapter, you should have a greater understanding of:
- The different kinds of social roles
- The differences between material and non-material culture
- The results of social isolation case studies
- The number of cultures that exist globally
|What is Culture? - Material and Non-Material Culture||Learn the differences between societies, nations and cultures.|
|Elements of Culture: Explanation of the Major Elements that Define Culture||Discover the importance of symbols, language and values in culture.|
|Cultural Subsets: High Culture, Popular Culture, Subculture, Counterculture and Multiculturalism||Learn more about these cultural subsets.|
|Perceptions of Culture: Ideal Culture and Real Culture, Ethnocentrism and Culture Relativism||Define and explain the differences between these types of culture.|
|Cultural Analysis: Theoretical Approaches||Explore aspects of sociobiology, social-conflict theory and structural-functional theory.|
|How Technology Affects Global and Local Cultures||Examine the global and local effects of technology.|
|Socialization and Social Isolation: Definition and Case Studies||Determine the importance of socialization. Also, discuss the differences between socialization and social isolation.|
|Agents of Socialization: Family, Schools, Peers and Media||Discuss the various means through which people become socialized.|
|Socialization Through the Life Course||Explain how childhood events could have lifelong consequences.|
|Social Interaction Theory: Ascribed, Achieved and Master Status||Explore the role of each type of status.|
|Social Roles: Definition and Types of Social Roles||Learn about topics such as role set, role exit, role conflict and role strain.|
|Social Constructionism: Definition and Theory||Explore the theory of symbolic interactionism.|
|Presentation of Self: Methods of Presenting the Self||Learn about performing gender, nonverbal communication, idealization and performances.|
1. What Is Culture? - Material and Nonmaterial Culture
Culture is a huge topic of study for sociologists. In this lesson, we define culture and distinguish between material and nonmaterial culture. As culture, nation, and society are often used interchangeably, we also distinguish between these three concepts.
2. Elements of Culture: Explanation of the Major Elements That Define Culture
Culture combines many elements to create a unique way of living for different people. In this lesson, we identify four of the elements that exist in every culture, albeit in different forms: symbols, language, values, and norms. We also differentiate between folkways and mores.
3. Cultural Subsets: High Culture, Popular Culture, Subculture, Counterculture & Multiculturalism
In this lesson, we identify several categories of cultures that can exist within a large culture. We define and discuss subcultures, high culture versus popular culture, and countercultures. We also discuss the view of multiculturalism in the U.S.
4. Perceptions of Culture: Ideal Culture and Real Culture, Ethnocentrism, & Culture Relativism
The way we perceive culture - both our own and that of others - is affected by many things. In this lesson, we define and discuss the difference between perceptions of ideal culture and real culture. We also examine ethnocentrism and compare it to the idea of culture relativism.
5. Cultural Analysis: Theoretical Approaches
In this lesson, we cover three theoretical approaches used by sociologists to analyze culture: structural-functional theory, social-conflict theory, and sociobiology. We define and discuss each theory, along with examples.
6. How Technology Affects Global & Local Cultures
The following lesson will discuss the effects that technology has both on a global and local scale. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check your understanding.
7. Socialization and Social Isolation: Definition & Case Studies
Interestingly, socialization seems to be the process that makes us act human. Here, we define socialization and discuss its importance to human development. We also contrast it to social isolation and discuss several case studies regarding what happens when humans don't or can't socialize.
8. Agents of Socialization: Family, Schools, Peers and Media
The socialization that we receive in childhood has a lasting effect on our ability to interact with others in society. In this lesson, we identify and discuss four of the most influential agents of socialization in childhood: family, school, peers, and media.
9. Socialization Through the Life Course
Socialization is a lifelong process. People must acquire the skills needed to function in society. They continue to acquire these skills throughout their lives. This lesson explains socialization throughout the life course.
10. Social Interaction Theory: Ascribed, Achieved & Master Status
In this lesson, we discuss social interaction theory, putting particular emphasis on the concept of social statuses. We identify and define several types of statuses, including ascribed, achieved, and master status.
11. Social Roles: Definition and Types of Social Roles
This lesson focuses on the roles that society socially constructs. We define social roles and identify examples. We also examine types of social roles and what can happen with them, including role conflict, role strain, and role exit.
12. Social Constructionism: Definition and Theory
Social constructionism means that our realities are shaped through our experiences and our interactions with others. This lesson explains social constructionism and its connection to symbolic interactionism.
13. Presentation of Self: Methods to Presenting The Self
All of us like to present ourselves to others as someone who is likable and successful. In this lesson, we discuss the concept of dramaturgical analysis as proposed by Erving Goffman. We also talk about the practice of idealization and how nonverbal communication can sometimes sabotage our presentation efforts.
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