About This Chapter
Social Change Over Time - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
While society might seem static to us, a great deal of change can take place over time. This series of video lessons introduces several theories and models of social change. You'll learn about social change at the macro level (i.e. historic, demographic) and micro level (i.e. crowd behavior, social movements).
This chapter also covers the process of social transition, such as through population growth, birthrates, aging, and migration. Visual representations are also introduced, such as age-sex pyramids. In these lessons, you'll learn things like:
- The concentric zone model of urban growth
- The difference between population growth and demographic changes
- Theories of crowd behavior
- The stages of social movement
- The theories and critiques of Tönnies, Marx, Durkheim, and Weber
|Migration from Rural to Urban Settings in Europe and the U.S.: History and Effects||Summarize the evolution of European and American societies from rural to urban settings; describe the effects of this change.|
|Historical Growth of Cities: Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft, Gentrification & the Concentric Zone Model||Describe urban growth using these concepts of community, society, and middle/upper classes buying up properties to 'revitalize' a neighborhood; describe urban growth using the concentric zone model.|
|Population Growth: Demographic Transition and Malthusian Theories||Apply the demographic transition theory and the Malthusian theory to a discussion of how population changes over time.|
|Demographic Changes from Fertility and Birthrates||Understand how demographics change in relation to fertility and birthrates. Define related concepts, including the crude birthrate and the infant mortality rate.|
|Population Change from Aging, Death, and Migration||Understand how population changes in relation to aging, death, and migration. Define related concepts, including life expectancy and the age-sex pyramid.|
|Environmental Impact: Society's Relationship and Issues||List and describe issues related to society and the environment, such as vanishing rainforests, climate change, and lack of clean water.|
|Crowd Behavior: Contagion, Convergent & Emergent Norm Theory||Discuss three main theories of how people behave in crowds.|
|Collective Behavior: Crowd Types, Mobs & Riots||Differentiate among four types of crowds.|
|Mass Hysteria & Moral Panic: Definitions, Causes & Examples||Understand mass hysteria and moral panic; define related vocabulary.|
|Types of Mass Behavior: Definitions & Examples||List types of mass behavior; define related terms, such as rumor, gossip, propaganda, fashion, and fads.|
|Social Movement: Theories and Motives||Describe related theories, including deprivation theory and culture theory.|
|Social Movement Stages: Emergence, Coalescence, Bureaucratization & Decline||Describe the stages of social movement.|
|Social Movement Definitions: Alternative, Redemptive, Reformative & Revolutionary||Differentiate among types of social movements and their purposes.|
|The Evolution from Premodern to Modern & Postmodern Societies||Understand each type of society (within a social context) and explain the transition from one to the next.|
|Tönnies' Critique of Modernity||Outline Tönnies' views of modernity.|
|Classical Social Theory: Marx & Durkheim on Modernity||Outline these two theories.|
|Max Weber's Analysis of Modernity||Review Weber's work on modernity.|
1. Migration from Rural to Urban Settings in Europe and the U.S.: History and Effects
In this lesson, we will discuss some of the causes for people to migrate from a rural setting to an urban setting in Europe and in America. We will also learn the difference between immigration and emigration.
2. Historical Growth of Cities: Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft, Gentrification & the Concentric Zone Model
In this lesson, we will discuss the contributions to classifying social change of two social scientists: Ferdinand Tonnies and Ernest W. Burgess. We will study concepts that include gemeinschaft, gesellschaft and gentrification.
3. Population Growth: Demographic Transition and Malthusian Theories
Population growth is not as simple as watching the total number of humans rise each year. This lesson explores how the experts actually calculate population growth rates, and how different theories explain why various regions of the world experience population growth changes in such different ways.
4. Demographic Changes from Fertility and Birthrates
Demographers focus on specific indicators of change in human populations. Two of the most important indicators are birth and death rates, or fertility and mortality. In this lesson, we will discuss the definitions of demography, fertility and mortality and their impact on a population.
5. Population Change from Aging, Death, and Migration
Fertility, mortality and migration are principal determinants of how a population can change, and they are at the very core of demographic studies. In this lesson, we will discuss how a population can change from fertility (birth), mortality (death), and migration.
6. Environmental Impact: Society's Relationship and Issues
In this lesson, we will discuss global warming, pollution and loss of habitat. Learn how the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests lead to global warming by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere.
7. Crowd Behavior: Contagion, Convergence & Emergent Norm Theory
Why do people act differently in crowds than they do individually? In this lesson, we will discuss three different theories to explain crowd behavior: contagion theory, convergence theory, and emergent norm theory.
8. Collective Behavior: Crowd Types, Mobs & Riots
Collective behavior refers to events that suddenly emerge. These events do not conform to rules or laws but instead are shaped based on the issue at hand. This lesson discusses the forms of collective behavior: crowds, mobs and riots.
9. Mass Hysteria & Moral Panic: Definitions, Causes & Examples
What do the fabled chicken little and the band KISS have in common? In this lesson we will discuss mass hysteria and moral panic by using specific examples of each and comparing the causes of these phenomena.
10. Types of Mass Behavior: Definitions & Examples
Mass behavior is a type of social behavior. There are many different types of mass behavior. In this lesson, we will define and describe mass hysteria, rumors, gossip, fads, and fashions as examples of mass behavior.
11. Social Movement: Theories and Motives
In this lesson, we will define what social movements are and discuss why they develop. We'll cover the deprivation theory, the mass-society theory and the structure strain theory, which are three theories that sociologists use to explain social movements.
12. Social Movement Stages: Emergence, Coalescence, Bureaucratization & Decline
Although social movements around the world differ from each other in many ways, they all generally go through a life cycle marked by the progressive stages of emergence, coalescence, bureaucratization, and decline. In this lesson we will discuss the four stages of social movements.
13. Social Movement Definitions: Alternative, Redemptive, Reformative & Revolutionary
Social movements can occur at the individual level or the societal level and can advocate for either minor or radical changes. This lesson will cover four kinds of social movements: alternative, redemptive, reformative, and revolutionary.
14. The Evolution from Premodern to Modern & Postmodern Societies
The advent of the Industrial Revolution during the late 1700s began a transformation in many developed countries around the world. The following lesson will discuss this transformation. A short quiz will follow to check your understanding.
15. Tonnies' Critique of Modernity
The following lesson will discuss the warnings that German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies gave about a society's move to modernity. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check your understanding.
16. Classical Social Theory: Marx & Durkheim on Modernity
The following lesson will compare the views of sociologists Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim and how they view a modern society. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check your understanding.
17. Max Weber's Analysis of Modernity
The following lesson discusses how rationality is the defining feature of modern societies according to Max Weber. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check your understanding.
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