About This Chapter
Understanding Cell Anatomy & Metabolism - Chapter Summary
This fun chapter makes it simple to strengthen your understanding of cell anatomy and metabolism. Watch engaging video lessons or review full written transcripts to study topics related to this subject, including alcohol metabolism, beta oxidation, lipogenesis and protein synthesis in cells. Each lesson is paired with a short quiz you can take to assess your comprehension of the concepts it examines. A practice exam can check your knowledge of the entire chapter. Any questions you have about topics covered in the lessons can be submitted to our experts. Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
- Describe the structure and function of a cell
- Define and share examples of anabolism and catabolism
- Detail the process of oxidation and reduction reactions
- Explain cellular respiration and the importance of the glycolysis pathway
- Compare and contrast lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
- Discuss the products and steps of the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
- Share the impact of feasting and fasting on cells
- Differentiate between glycogenesis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
1. The Cell: Structure & Function
The cell is a small, but complex structure. Take a look inside the outer plasma membrane of a cell and discover the functions of some common cellular components, including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, in this lesson.
2. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples
Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.
3. Oxidation & Reduction Reactions in the Metabolism: Process & Significance
Oxidation and reduction reactions, collectively known as redox reactions, take place in body cells and are important for the production of energy, namely ATP. Oxidation involves the loss of electrons and reduction involves the gain of electrons.
4. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
5. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
6. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
7. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
8. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
9. Beta Oxidation: Definition & Steps
In this lesson, you'll discover what beta oxidation is and what it is used for. You'll also learn a little bit about fatty acids and the steps involved in their breakdown.
10. Effects of Feasting & Fasting on Cells
Your cells use the nutrients from the foods you eat to fuel vital functions. If you eat too much (feast), excessive nutrients get pushed into storage. If you eat too little or not at all (fast), stored nutrients can be pulled out of storage and used to meet your body's needs.
11. Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis
Your body uses processes to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range. Learn how your body decreases blood glucose levels through glycogenesis and how it boosts glucose levels through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in this lesson.
12. Protein Synthesis in Cells: Process & Importance
The DNA of the cell contains the blueprints for all the proteins in the body. These blueprints become proteins with the help of RNA and ribosomes. Follow along with this lesson to learn about the two major phases of protein synthesis: transcription and translation.
13. Lipogenesis: Process & Function
Lipogenesis is the process your body uses to convert carbohydrates into fatty acids, which are the building blocks of fats. Fat is an efficient way for your body to store energy. Learn about the importance of acetyl-CoA and insulin in lipogenesis.
14. Alcohol Metabolism: Process & Effects
Alcohol is broken down in the liver with the help of enzymes. Learn how alcohol is converted to the toxic byproduct acetaldehyde before being oxidized into acetate with help from the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in this lesson.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Science of Nutrition: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Understanding Nutrition Basics
- Researching Nutrition
- Diet Planning Basics
- Carbohydrates in Nutrition
- Impact of Lipids on Nutrition
- Protein's Role in Nutrition
- Water as a Nutrient
- Minerals in Nutrition
- Symptoms of Major Mineral Deficiency & Toxicity
- Symptoms of Trace Mineral Deficiency & Toxicity
- The Role of Vitamins in Nutrition
- Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Digestion
- How the Body Handles Nutrients
- Health & Regulation of the GI Tract
- Excretion: Urination & Sweat
- Managing the Body's Weight & Energy
- Eating Disorders: Risk to Nutrition
- Role of Physical Fitness in Nutrition
- UExcel Science of Nutrition Flashcards