About This Chapter
Understanding Chemical Bonding - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The lessons in this chapter deal with various types of chemical bonds, including ionic, covalent and polar covalent bonds, and explore how an ionic compound is formed. Other lessons look at topics such as the valence bond theory, the molecular orbital theory and VSEPR theory. Experienced instructors will guide you through each lesson, and you can assess your knowledge with the quizzes that accompany each video. By the end of this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:
- Chemical bonds
- The octet rule and Lewis structures
- How to write ionic compound formulas
- Properties of covalent compounds
- Van der Waal's forces
|Chemical Bonds I: Covalent||Define molecule, covalent bond, double bond, triple bond and chemical bond.|
|Chemical Bonds II: Ionic||Define ion, ionic bond, cation, anion and electronegativity.|
|Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent||Define polar covalent and nonpolar covalent bonds.|
|Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen||Define hydrogen bond and polar covalent bond.|
|The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms||Describe how to apply the octet rule and draw the Lewis structure of an element.|
|Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge and Formulas of Ions||Describe how ions are formed, predict the charge the ion will have, name the ion and write its formula.|
|Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties||Describe how an ionic compound is formed, define lattice energy and list properties of ionic compounds.|
|Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal and Polyatomic Ion Compounds||Name and write the formulas for all ionic compounds.|
|Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming and Formation||Describe how covalent compounds are formed and list their properties. Name binary covalent compounds.|
|Lewis Structures: Single, Double and Triple Bonds||Draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds containing single, double and triple bonds.|
|Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions and Resonance Structures||Draw Lewis structures of polyatomic ions and resonance structures.|
|Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character||Using the periodic table, be able to determine the polarity of a bond and determine the amount of ionic character a bond has.|
|VSEPR Theory and Dipole Moments||Predict the shapes of molecules using the VSEPR theory and use the VSEPR structure to determine a molecule's polarity.|
|Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole and Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces||Describe ion-dipole forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding and their effects of properties such as boiling and melting points.|
|London Dispersion Forces (Van der Waal's Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces||Explain how London dispersion forces are created and what effect it has on properties such as boiling and melting points.|
|Using Orbital Hybridization and Valences Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape||Explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization.|
|Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams||Sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the theory to determine bond order.|
|Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model and Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors||Describe the electron-sea model of metallic bonding and use it to explain why metals are good electrical conductors and also why they are shiny and malleable.|
|Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules||Understand the bonding in macromolecules and identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules.|
|Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers||Distinguish among the structures of alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Define isomers.|
|Functional Groups in Organic Molecules||Identify alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters and ethers based on the functional group.|
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
5. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
6. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
7. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
8. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
9. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
10. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
11. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
12. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
13. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
14. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
15. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
16. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
17. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
18. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
19. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
20. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
21. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
22. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
23. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
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Other chapters within the Physical Science: High School course
- Understanding Matter
- Understanding Gases
- Understanding the Atom & Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table
- Understanding Solutions
- Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- Understanding Motion
- Force, Motion, and Newton's Laws
- Work, Energy, Power, and Thermodynamics
- Waves and Sound in Physical Science
- Light in Physical Science
- Electricity Fundamentals
- The Universe