About This Chapter
Understanding Chemistry Basics - Chapter Summary
The lessons presented to you in this chapter will discuss chemistry basics. Topics such as the electron shell and the periodic table will be explored in this chapter. Subjects that are covered in these lessons include:
- How atoms make up elements
- Construction of molecules
- Difference in shape and volume of the four states of matter
- Changes in matter
- Six phase changes
- Properties of the proton
- Relationship between electrons and chemical reactivity
- Covalent bonds
- Organization of the elements
- Mixtures of elements and compounds
The lessons in this chapter are taught by educators who are professionals and experts in their fields. Every video lesson is accompanied by a timeline feature that gives you the freedom to jump around to specific areas of the lesson that you need to concentrate on rather than watching the whole video. Text lessons make it easy to pinpoint important terms by highlighting them in bold type. Spend as much time as you need on each lesson.
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. What is a Molecule? - Structure & Models
Water is a molecule. Caffeine is a molecule. DNA is a (really big) molecule. Learn how molecules are constructed and modeled and explore the different types of models.
3. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
4. States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter
The world around us is constantly changing. Chemists put those changes into two main categories: physical changes and chemical changes. This lesson will define and provide examples of each.
5. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
6. Protons: Definition, Charge & Mass
Protons can be found in the nucleus of every atom. While originally it had been thought that protons were a fundamental particle, recent research has shown that protons are made of quarks. This lesson will cover the properties of the proton.
7. The Electron Shell
You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?
8. Covalent Bonding and Electron Shells: Definitions, Relationship & the Octet Rule
Learn about the different electron shells of atoms as well as the octet rule for valence electrons and how that applies to covalent bonding. Discover the definition of covalent bonding and the relationships between atoms.
9. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
10. Creating Mixtures by Combining Elements & Compounds
Do you really know what's in your tap water? It's not just water - it's a mixture of many different things. In fact, most things are mixtures of different elements and compounds that are physically joined together.
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