About This Chapter
Understanding Diversity through Sociology - Chapter Summary
This chapter makes it easy to attain a quality understanding of diversity through sociology. Review fun lessons at your own pace to gain greater insight into topics that include social status, crime and deviance in the U.S., global stratification and the American class system. Upon completion of this chapter, you will be ready to:
- Define various sociological theories of deviance
- Discuss the labeling and social conflict theories as they relate to crime
- Share details about deviance and crime in the U.S. criminal justice system
- Describe social status and differentiate between caste and class
- Provide information about the American class system and list types of social classes
- Identify and describe types of social mobility
- Explain relative and absolute poverty in the United States
- Examine global stratification and differences in income levels and poverty
Review one, several, or all lessons in this chapter in any sequence you desire to study diversity through sociology concepts your way. Each lesson is available as a short video you can watch online or a full transcript your can read online or print. Before, during or after examining the lessons, take multiple-choice quizzes to assess your comprehension of the concepts they cover. Get a broader review of the lessons by taking the practice chapter exam.
1. Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical Perspectives
There is a diverse range of behaviors in society that goes against expectations and cultural norms. In this lesson, we define and go over some examples of the different types of deviance. We also discuss two sociological theories about deviance created by Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton.
2. Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling
Labeling others is common in our society. In this lesson, we discuss the specifics of labeling theory, including when and why people are labeled. We also distinguish between retroactive and projective labeling and briefly discuss Travis Hirschi's control theory.
3. Social Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to Deviance
In this lesson, we discuss the social conflict approach to deviance, including the connection between deviance and power as well as deviance and capitalism. We also discuss the difference between white-collar and blue-collar crime and define corporate crime and organized crime.
4. Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due Process
In this lesson, we discuss the U.S. criminal justice system and how it deals with deviant acts. We define due process and discuss four rationales for social punishment: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and societal protection.
5. Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification
Social hierarchies exist in all societies and cultures. In this lesson, we define social stratification and its characteristics. We also discuss the difference between open and closed systems, including what differentiates a caste from a class.
6. American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes
In this lesson, we discuss the American class system and the social stratification layers that exist within each class. We also differentiate between income and wealth and discuss how they relate to social status.
7. Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal
In our society, some individuals and families experience drastic changes in social status and lifestyle. In this lesson, we define social mobility and discuss different types, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical, and horizontal mobility.
8. Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty
Today, a significant number of Americans suffer from poverty. In this lesson, we define and discuss the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty. We also examine the populations that are most at risk.
9. Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty
In this lesson, we define global stratification and discuss how nations are stratified. We discuss the outdated three-world model as well as the current differences between high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Sociology (5952): Practice & Study Guide course
- Introduction to Sociology
- Influential Sociological Theorists
- Sociological Research Methods
- Culture, Socialization & Social Interaction
- Human Development Theories in Sociology
- Social Groups & Interactions
- Sex and Gender Roles
- Race & Ethnicity in Society
- Understanding Aging through Sociology
- Studying Social Institutions
- Social Changes & Behaviors
- Political & Economic Systems
- Praxis Sociology Flashcards