# Ch 2: Understanding Gases

### About This Chapter

## Understanding Gases - Chapter Summary

Learn about the properties of gases in these concise video lessons led by experienced instructors. You will examine kinetic molecular theory and how it explains the movement of gas particles. Other lessons explore the theories and laws that apply to gases and their properties. You will also learn basics such as how to execute pressure and temperature conversions and measure the density of a gas. The videos in this chapter will help you:

- Recall what the kinetic molecular theory is
- Identify the conversions used for pressure
- Review how to calculate partial and total pressures
- Analyze the Boltzmann distribution
- Distinguish the difference between diffusion and effusion
- Explain what molar volume is
- Recognize the relationship between gas pressure and volume
- Define Charles' law
- Discuss Gay-Lussac's law on gas pressure and temperature
- Summarize the ideal gas law and the gas constant
- Analyze what real gases are
- Determine the density of a gas
- Explore pressure change and volume of a gas in the lab

### 1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases

Ideal gas molecules do not repel or attract each other, and professionals, like engineers, who work with gases need to recognize which gases are ideal. Learn how the kinetic molecular theory helps scientists and others understand the properties of ideal gases.

### 2. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions

Talking about pressure is talking about the force per unit area in a container. Learn about the definition of pressure, explore some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure, and discover how to make conversions among units.

### 3. How to Find the Density of a Gas

The ideal gas law is used to solve for the density of a gas, which is more difficult due to its easily influenced nature. Learn about the importance of the ideal gas law and how to use it to calculate the density of a gas.

### 4. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures is used to calculate the partial and the total pressures of gases. Explore how gases behave after being mixed together and discover how to apply Dalton's Law to scientific problems concerning water vapor.

### 5. The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases

Determining the movement of gas particles is difficult, but the Boltzmann distribution can show the probability of kinetic energy using temperature. Learn about how gas particles move, how the Boltzmann distribution curve works, and what factors can contribute to curve changes.

### 6. Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law

Graham's Law helps explain how gas particles move through the air. Learn about Graham's Law, including the processes of diffusion and effusion, and explore how to use the law to solve problems.

### 7. Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas

Avogadro's law can be represented as an equation and is a tool used to calculate the quantity or volume of a gas. Explore Avogadro's law equation and discover how it is used to solve problems involving molar volume.

### 8. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship

According to Boyle's law, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume at a constant temperature. Understand Boyle's law and how to apply it to solve problems involving volume and pressure.

### 9. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship

In the late 1700s, Jacques Charles discovered when gas pressure remains constant as the temperature increases, the volume of the gas will also increase. This discovery became known as Charles' law. Learn about Jacques Charles, absolute zero, and how to use the equation for Charles' law to determine the relationship between gas volume and temperature.

### 10. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship

Gay-Lussac's law states that as the temperature of a gas increases inside a container with a constant volume, the pressure inside the container will also increase. Learn about Gay-Lussac's law, the relationship between temperature and gas pressure, and how to use Gay-Lussac's equation to solve real-world applications.

### 11. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

The ideal gas law can be used to predict real gas behavior. Learn about this law, including its equation, and understand how to use the equation to solve a gas problem. Explore the concepts used by the ideal gas law such as the gas constant.

### 12. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas

The equation for the ideal gas law is PV = nRT. Learn how to use this equation to solve for the pressure in the atmosphere, volume in liters, number of particles in moles, the temperature in Kelvin, and the ideal gas constant.

### 13. Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws

The behavior of real gases requires the use of a modified equation. Understand the ideal gas law, examine gas behavior assumptions, the Van Der Waals equation, and the deviations from the ideal gas laws.

### 14. Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation

Real gases behave differently under non-ideal conditions, such as high pressure, high density, or low temperature. Use the Van der Waals equation to account for the difference in volume and attractive forces between molecules.

### 15. Pressure Change & Volume of a Gas: Physics Lab

Pressure and volume can change as a response to one another. Observe the relationship between pressure change and the volume of a gas in this lab and analyze the findings regarding Boyle's Law and Charles' Law.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Physical Science: High School course

- Understanding Matter
- Understanding the Atom & Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table
- Understanding Chemical Bonding
- Stoichiometry
- Understanding Solutions
- Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- Understanding Motion
- Force, Motion, and Newton's Laws
- Work, Energy, Power, and Thermodynamics
- Waves and Sound in Physical Science
- Light in Physical Science
- Electricity Fundamentals
- The Universe