About This Chapter
Understanding Genetics - Chapter Summary
Genetics is an essential component of life on earth, and these comprehensive text and video lessons can teach you about the basic topics in genetics in a way that is both clear and informative. Go over these lessons to learn about DNA, alleles, genes, and other essential topics related to human genetics. Each lesson is taught by an experienced instructor who breaks down topics like independent assortment and genetic abnormalities in human growth and development point-by-point, so you don't need to worry about confusing any information. Some of the other topics you can learn about in this chapter are:
- The definition and characteristics of DNA and RNA
- DNA replication and role of DNA in protein synthesis
- Alleles properties and genes with multiple alleles
- Genotypes and phenotypes
- Pedigree analysis in human genetics
- Punnett squares
- Random mutation and genetic variability
- Abnormal chromosome structure
All of the video lessons in this chapter contain tags corresponding to that topic's main points so you can skip to specific topics. The chapter also offers you complete text transcripts, should you wish to read over a hard copy of these lessons on your own time. Be sure to answer the questions in the practice quizzes and final exam once you complete the chapter, so you can be sure that you have accurately understood these genetics topics..
1. What is DNA?
In this lesson, we will learn what DNA is, what its characteristics and functions are, even where it is located and what information it contains. We'll also learn how the double helix is created. Find out more.
2. How Does DNA Replicate?
In this lesson, we will learn why DNA replicates as well as how. We'll also learn about the rates of replication and how DNA proofreads itself. After watching the lesson, you can complete a short quiz to test your knowledge.
3. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
4. What Is the Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis?
What purpose does DNA serve inside the cell? How does DNA contribute to protein synthesis? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this lesson.
5. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
6. Codominance & Genes with Multiple Alleles
Some genes have more than two alleles, which increases the possible genetic outcomes for offspring. And as we'll see in this lesson, sometimes those alleles work together to produce a codominant phenotype.
7. What are Genotypes? - Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about what genotypes are, where they come from and how they play a major role in determining how your body works and what you look like.
8. What Is a Phenotype? - Definition & Example
Do you have blue eyes or brown eyes, or something else, like hazel? That's your phenotype for eye color. Discover examples of phenotypes, and how they are (partly) determined by your genes.
9. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics: Tutorial
One of the oldest genetic techniques is pedigree analysis, and yet it is still used every day all around the world by doctors, geneticists, and genetic counselors. Building and reading a pedigree is actually fairly easy if you know what the symbols mean. In fact, it's so easy that you can learn how to do it in less than ten minutes if you watch this video!
10. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
11. Punnett Square: Definition & Example
This lesson will define what a Punnett square is and show several examples of how one can be used. It will also briefly describe patterns of inheritance.
12. Genetic Variability and Random Mutation
Evolution is driven by variation among populations. The amount of variability determines how well a population can adapt to environmental changes, while random mutations can provide new variations that help a population adapt to unexpected changes.
13. Abnormal Chromosome Number & Structure
The chromosomes inside of a person's cells can undergo structural changes or changes in number, causing severe and fatal disorders. In this lesson, we'll outline what these changes are and discuss examples of some of these disorders.
14. Genetic Abnormalities in Human Growth and Development
What are mutations and other chromosome abnormalities? How can these abnormalities affect human development? What are some common genetic disorders and their causes? Learn the answers to these questions in this lesson.
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