About This Chapter
Solutions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you will learn the definition of a solution, how a solution is formed and how to predict outcomes when working with solutions. Experienced instructors will explain topics that are vital to the understanding of chemical reactions, such as the solubility of common salts and changes in properties. By the end of this chapter, you should understand the following:
- Factors that affect the rate of dissolution
- The difference between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
- Factors that affect solubility
- How to make concentration and dilution calculations
- Raoult's law
|The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition||List factors that affect the rate of dissolution. Explain how the interactions among molecules contribute to the enthalpy of solution.|
|Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes||Explain how a solution is formed. Compare the dissolution of ionic compounds with that of covalent compounds.|
|Solubility and Solubility Curves||Determine the solubility of a substance in water and explain the effects of pressure and temperature on solubility.|
|Solubility of Common Salts||Discuss the solubility of common salts.|
|Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration||Make concentration calculations of either molarity or molality.|
|Calculating Dilution of Solutions||Make dilution calculations.|
|Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law||Explain the main colligative properties, such as vapor-pressure lowering and freezing point depression. Calculate the expected change in freezing point and boiling point of a solution.|
1. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
2. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
3. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
4. Solubility of Common Salts: Predicting Reaction Outcomes
Ever wondered why some salts dissolve in water and others don't? In this lesson you will learn about some simple salt solubility rules. Using these rules, you will be able to predict the products of many chemical reactions.
5. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn the abbreviations and meaning of molarity and molality. Then apply what you have learned by going over some sample calculations with given concentrations.
6. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
7. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
8. Saturated Solution: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of a saturated solution. There will be examples provided to assist you with your understanding of the topic. Also several types of saturated solutions are provided.
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Other chapters within the Physical Science: High School course
- Understanding Matter
- Understanding Gases
- Understanding the Atom & Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table
- Understanding Chemical Bonding
- Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions
- Understanding Motion
- Force, Motion, and Newton's Laws
- Work, Energy, Power, and Thermodynamics
- Waves and Sound in Physical Science
- Light in Physical Science
- Electricity Fundamentals
- The Universe