About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the functions of the kidneys or the urinary system
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the urinary system
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Urinary System chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Urinary System chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any urinary system question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- Which organs make up the urinary system?
- What are the major structures and divisions of the kidneys?
- How is blood supplied to the kidneys?
- What are the structures and functions of the nephron?
- What are the supportive structures of the nephron?
- What is glomerular filtration?
- What are the functions of the renal tubule?
- What are the functions of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system?
- How do the kidneys regulate water balance?
- How do the kidneys regulate acid-base balance?
- How do metabolic and kidney disease affect kidney function?
1. Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System
Our body must detoxify and cleanse itself to thrive. That is why we depend so heavily on our liver and urinary system. In this lesson, we'll explore how toxins are filtered by our organs and how urine is formed and expelled with the nephron, bladder, ureters, and urethra.
2. The Kidney: Major Divisions & Structures
Learn about the major layers of the kidneys, like the renal cortex and renal medulla. Find out about the inner parts of the kidneys, including the renal papilla, renal pelvis, renal pyramid, and renal hilum.
3. Blood Supply of the Kidneys
Follow the blood supply of the kidneys through the aorta and into the renal artery, then delve deeper into the blood supply as we look into the arcuate artery, interlobar artery, and interlobular artery. Finally, we will find out the function of the renal vein.
4. The Nephron: The Glomerulus's Major Structures and Functions
Together, the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the renal corpuscle of the nephron. These parts of the nephron filter blood and are vital to our body's survival. In this lesson, you'll explore the major corpuscular structures and their functions.
5. Supportive Structures of the Nephron: Functions and Definitions
In this lesson, you'll learn about the supportive structures of the nephron, including the juxtaglomerular apparatus, juxtaglomerular cells, macula densa, and mesangial cells. You'll also explore enzymes and hormones like renin and erythropoietin and learn why they are so important to the body.
6. What is the Glomerular Filtration Rate? - Definition, Function & Terms
Forces known as hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure help to increase and decrease your glomerular filtration rate. Find out what the GFR is and how these forces influence it.
7. The Renal Tubule: Definition, Function & Terms
Renal tubules are essential structures in the kidneys. This lesson explores the function of the renal tubule and its parts, including the proximal and distal convoluted tubules, the loop of Henle, and the collecting duct. Learn how these components work together to absorb materials and form urine.
8. Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS): Pathway, Functions & Terms
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is one of the most complex and important systems in controlling the blood pressure in your body. As we go over this system, you'll also learn about the many hormones involved in the control of your body's glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure.
9. How the Kidneys Regulate Water Balance
Water balance is essential to our health and survival. This lesson explores how the kidneys regulate water balance with special cells known as osmoreceptors and a process called osmoregulation. You'll also learn how this process relates to a rare form of diabetes known as diabetes insipidus.
10. How the Kidneys Regulate Acid Base Balance
Find out how your kidneys keep you alive by excreting acids and bases in conditions like respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis.
11. How Kidney and Metabolic Disease Affect Kidney Function
This lesson explores chronic kidney disease and the metabolic disorders that affect kidney function. We'll delve into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis and learn what your urine can tell you about your health.
12. Anuria: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Anuria is a condition that occurs when the body isn't producing enough urine, but why would this happen? Watch this lesson to learn about anuria and its causes, symptoms, and possible treatment options.
13. Functional Incontinence: Definition & Treatment
Urinary incontinence occurs when a person cannot control when urine leaves their body. But, have you heard the term functional incontinence before? Continue reading to find out what functional incontinence is and how it can be treated.
14. Glycosuria: Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Glycosuria is a condition where glucose is excreted in urine in higher amounts than normal. Watch this lesson to find out why this happens and to learn about the different types of glycosuria.
15. Incontinence: Definition, Types, Causes & Treatment
This text lesson will discuss the definition of incontinence. We will also review the different types of incontinence including specific causes and treatments for each type.
16. Loop Diuretics: Examples & Side Effects
This lesson will provide a brief overview of the mechanism of action of loop diuretics. It will also discuss examples of loop diuretics and side effects of these medications.
17. Micturition Syncope: Definition & Causes
Micturition syncope is a medical condition where a person's blood pressure suddenly drops right after they urinate, causing them to faint. What causes such a thing to happen? Read this lesson to learn more about micturition syncope.
18. Oliguria: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
As convenient as it might seem to rarely have to go to the bathroom, there is a condition that actually causes this to happen. Oliguria is when a person produces an abnormally low amount of urine, and while this may not sound like big deal, it is, in fact, a very serious medical problem. In this lesson we will look at the definition, causes, symptoms, and treatment of oliguria.
19. Polyuria: Definition, Causes & Symptoms
There's a saying that 'When you've got to go, you've got to go!' And with polyuria, you've got to go a lot. In this lesson, you'll learn about polyuria and what causes it.
20. Pyuria: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
This lesson will review the definition of pyuria and potential causes. We will also discuss the symptoms associated with pyuria and treatments for this disorder.
21. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in the part of the body that makes and excretes urine. Read about the different causes and explore the various symptoms. Understand the different treatment option and how to reduce your risk.
22. What Are Renal Calculi? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Renal calculi are also known as kidney stones - almost 1 million people are treated for these each year in the USA. Read this lesson to learn about different types of kidney stones, why they form, and how they are treated.
23. What is a Foley Catheter? - Definition & Uses
A Foley catheter is a small flexible rubber or plastic tube that is placed into the bladder to assist in the collection and drainage of urine for those who have medical conditions affecting their urinary tract. Read about more about its uses below.
24. What Is Diuresis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
What is diuresis? Simply put, it's when you produce too much urine, resulting in a LOT of trips to the bathroom. Complete this lesson to learn why this unfortunate condition develops and how it can be treated.
25. What Is Dysuria? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
In this lesson, you will learn about dysuria, including common symptoms, causes, and treatments. You will also discover how symptoms differ between males and females.
26. What Is Enuresis? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
After completing this lesson, you will be able to define enuresis and describe its causes and treatment options. A short quiz follows this lesson so that you can test your new knowledge.
27. What Is ESRD? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
You are likely aware of the role your kidneys play in removing excess waste and water from the body, but what happens when they can no longer properly function? In this lesson, we will discuss end stage renal disease (ESRD) along with the common causes and symptoms of this condition.
28. What Is GFR? - Blood Test, Levels & Calculation
In this lesson, you will learn about GFR; what it measures as well as what levels are considered normal in a healthy human. The blood test and calculations used to determine GFR will also be described.
29. What Is Hematuria? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Hematuria is a condition that causes blood to be excreted in the urine - yikes! Check out this lesson to learn more about hematuria, including the causes, symptoms and treatment.
30. What Is Hydronephrosis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Hydronephrosis is a medical condition affecting the kidneys. Read this lesson to learn what the condition is, what causes it, the symptoms it produces, and possible treatment options for those with hydronephrosis.
31. What is Nocturia? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
There are few things worse than waking up from a dead sleep because you have to use the bathroom. Nocturia is when you wake up in the middle of the night because you have to urinate. Find out why this happens and what treatments exist if it gets excessive.
32. What Is Peritoneal Dialysis? - Definition, Procedure & Complications
Peritoneal dialysis is one method used to manually clean the blood after the kidneys fail and can no longer do the job. Read more to learn about the different types of peritoneal dialysis, how it works, and what complications can occur.
33. What Is Peritonitis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Learn the definition of peritonitis, the symptoms of this condition, and treatment options available to patients that have peritonitis.
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Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
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- Cardiovascular System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
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- Endocrine System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Muscular System: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Early Development to Childbirth: Help and Review
- Overview of Nerves & Senses