About This Chapter
Vitamins in Nutrition - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, our instructors explain the recommended requirements of vitamins and sources of these vitamins in our diet. You will be introduced to the classification system used for vitamins and the deficiencies related to inadequate intake of different types of vitamins, as well as symptoms of toxicity from excess consumption.
As you progress through the chapter, each vitamin will be introduced in turn, along with why and how it is needed for health, food sources of each, and more. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Discuss the importance of vitamins and explain three food sources for each
- Explain how vitamins are classified as water- or fat-soluble vitamins
- Identify the contributions of Vitamin C, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, B5, B6, and B7, Folate, B12 to health
- Understand effects of under-consumption and over-consumption of water-soluble vitamins
- Discuss Vitamins A, D, E and K
- List deficiency and toxicity symptoms for fat-soluble vitamins
This important information is taught via short, engaging video lessons that draw you in and make learning fun. Professional instructors present the material and give you self-assessment quizzes and lesson transcripts along with the videos. Key terms you need to know are highlighted, and the timelines in each video take you quickly and easily to sections of the videos you want to review.
1. Vitamins We Need: Their Importance & Sources
There are a lot of different vitamins, and they come from many different places! This lesson will teach you about what they are, how many different kinds you need, what they do, and where you can obtain them naturally.
2. Classification of Vitamins: Water-soluble & Fat-soluble
Vitamins are classified based on their solubility. The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K. They can be stored in the body. The water-soluble vitamins are the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. They are easily flushed out of the body.
3. Vitamin C: Water-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin C is soluble in water, so it is easily flushed out of your body. If it is not replenished regularly, it can cause deficiency symptoms, such as scurvy and a reduced ability to fight infection. Toxicity is rare, but can cause GI distress.
4. Thiamin: Water-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Thiamin (B1) is a water-soluble vitamin that is easily flushed out of the body. If the level of thiamin in the body is too low, it will result in a deficiency disease, such as beriberi or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There's no toxic level of thiamin.
5. Riboflavin: Water-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, so it is not stored in the body. In this lesson, learn about this vitamin and its effects on the body, including symptoms of too much or too little riboflavin.
6. Niacin, B5, B6 & B7: Water-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity
Water-soluble vitamins, which include niacin, B5, B6 and B7, are easily flushed from the body, making them prone to deficiencies. Learn about these B vitamins and symptoms associated with consuming too few as well as too many of them.
7. Folate: Water-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Folate, also known as B9, is found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other foods or obtained through folic acid, which is an easily absorbed form of folate. Learn about folate deficiency symptoms, such as neural tube defects, and toxicity symptoms in this lesson.
8. B12: Water-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin found naturally in animal products, but also available in fortified plant foods. Learn how pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis impact B12 absorption and the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity.
9. Vitamin A: Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for vision and cell differentiation. Learn about conditions that can result when vitamin A is deficient, including night blindness and xerophthalmia, as well as symptoms of toxicity, in this lesson.
10. Vitamin D: Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is made by your body when your skin is exposed to the sun. It is also obtained through foods. Learn about conditions that result due to vitamin D deficiency, such as rickets and osteomalacia, as well as symptoms of toxicity.
11. Vitamin E: Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant. Vitamin E deficiency can cause cell membranes to break down and lead to hemolytic anemia. Learn why this is a problem for premature infants, and also learn about symptoms of toxicity, in this lesson.
12. Vitamin K: Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
Vitamin K is a vitamin needed for blood clotting and bone health. Learn why bleeding and bruising increase in a person with a vitamin K deficiency and why deficiency can increase risk of osteoporosis. Also learn about risks involving overconsumption.
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Other chapters within the Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS): Test Prep & Study Guide course
- Fundamental Principles of Nutrition
- Life Cycle Stages & Nutrition
- Energy Balance & The Body
- The Chemical Composition of Nutrients
- Nutritional Biochemistry
- Nutrition-Related Physiology
- Digestion & Nutrient Absorption
- Metabolism of Nutrients
- Carbohydrates in Health & Nutrition
- Protein's Role in Nutrition
- Lipids in Health & Nutrition
- Minerals in Health & Nutrition
- Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency & Toxicity
- Meeting Nutrient Requirements
- Nutritional Assessment
- Clinical Intervention & Monitoring
- Drug & Nutrient Interactions
- Dietary Therapeutics & Behavior Optimization
- The Risk of Eating Disorders to Nutrition
- Professional Issues in Nutrition
- Certified Nutrition Specialist Flashcards