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- Become familiar with the Homestead Act of 1862 and the Frontier Thesis.
- Examine the history of the Transcontinental Railroad.
- Describe conflicts with the Native Americans.
- Discuss the economic policies of the Second Industrial Revolution.
- Learn about industry development in America during the Gilded Age.
- Take a look at the business practices of industrial leaders like Andrew Carnegie.
- Describe procedures Frederick Taylor developed to maximize productivity and efficiency.
- Examine the labor conditions during the Second Industrial Revolution.
- Explore Gilded Age politics.
- Discuss the development of labor unions during the Second Industrial Revolution.
- Learn about the platform of the Populist Party.
- Become familiar with the effects and problems associated with urbanization.
- List the goals of various urban reform movements.
- Describe the middle class opportunities that the Second Industrial Revolution brought about.
1. Westward Expansion: The Homestead Act of 1862 & the Frontier Thesis
Prior to the mid-1800s, America essentially stopped at the Mississippi river. However, miners subsequently began pouring into the west to search for gold and other metals. Then the Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged further western expansion and settlement by giving away 'free' land to non-native individuals. Learn more about these historical events, as well as the Frontier Thesis, which argued that the nation's frontier was the meeting point 'between savagery and civilization.'
2. Expanding the Transcontinental Railroad: History and Impact
On May 10, 1869, the final railway spike was driven into the ground at Promontory Summit, Utah to connect two railroads and create the first American transcontinental railroad. The completion of the railway would change American life for better and worse. Learn about the history of the transcontinental railroad, the rationale behind crossing the continent by rail, and the effects of the transcontinental railroad in America during the late 19th century.
3. Native Americans: Conflict, Conquest and Assimilation During the Gilded Age
In the late 19th century, settlers migrated further to the west and came into conflict with Native American tribes, which prompted the U.S. government to displace indigenous people onto reservations. Learn more about the conquest of Native lands by the U.S. government, the Indian Wars, the massacre at Wounded Knee, the Dawes Act, and the government's attempts at assimilating native youths by kidnapping over 35% of Indian children and adopting them out to white families.
4. Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution
During the late 1800's, the Second Industrial Revolution transformed America into an industrial nation and brought a wave of economic policies that favored business development. Learn about the economic policies during the Second Industrial Revolution, monetary policy, tariffs, the Gilded Age, and how the Sherman Antitrust Act was used to rein in big business and restore competition.
5. American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models
American industry development in the Gilded Age was distinguished by innovations and mass production and is often referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution. Discover the Bessemer process, the shift to scientific management, and the new business models, all of which made revolutionary changes in American industry.
6. Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons
With the Second Industrial Revolution came the rise of businessmen like Andrew Carnegie. Explore the rises, practices, and philosophies of Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons, from their beliefs in Reform Darwinism to their philanthropy.
7. Frederick Taylor & Management: Maximizing Productivity & Efficiency
Frederick Taylor revolutionized management practices to maximize productivity and efficiency. Explore his observations, the scientific management approach, and learn about Taylor's four principles of scientific management.
8. Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution
During the Second Industrial Revolution in America, factory jobs often required workers to deal with unpleasant labor conditions. Workers usually completed 60-hour work weeks in exchange for poverty pay. Learn about work in the Gilded Age, the typical hours and wages for factory workers, normal conditions at work, and how labor unions led to the gradual improvement of working conditions.
9. Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform
Gilded Age politics began after the Reconstruction era and lasted until the 20th century. It is known as a time of corruption. Learn about the presidents of the Gilded Age and why they are considered forgotten, explore political machines and civil service reform.
10. Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management
During the Second Industrial Revolution, American workers had few, if any, legal protections due to a societal belief in Social Darwinism. To combat this, workers began forming unions, such American Federation of Labor, to bargain on their behalf, despite resistance from companies and business owners. Explore the conditions that prompted these unions, the actions that they took, and the effect that they had.
11. The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions
The Gilded Age brought much change to America in the late 1800s, particularly for the rural farming community. Learn how the economy of the Gilded Age brought forth political parties such as the Grangers and Populist Party, who focused on the rise of the individual farmers over industry.
12. Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism
During the Industrial Revolution, the United States of America accepted a massive wave of immigrants of various nationalities, ethnicities, and religions from around the world. Learn about the new immigrants' arrival & settlement in America, the rise of nativism, and federal acts that regulated immigration in industrial America.
13. Urbanization During the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems
Urbanization is the process of people being concentrated into cities and it occurred during the second industrial revolution in America. Explore the lure of the city, the effects and problems of urbanization, and learn about the emergence of urban planning.
14. The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform Movements
The Social Gospel Movement was brought about by Protestant Christians in an effort to meet the spiritual and physical needs of the urban working class. Take a deeper look at the definition, goals, and legacy of urban reform movements, and learn about the origins of the YMCA, Salvation Army and settlement houses.
15. Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities During the Second Industrial Revolution
During the late 1800's, urbanization and increased technology created new opportunities for the middle class in American cities. Learn about the development of modern America and how advancements in technology and communications during the Second Industrial Revolution created new sports & leisure activities, literature, arts, and educational opportunities for the middle class.
16. California Gold Rush: History, Facts & Effects
In this lesson we explore the California Gold Rush, which spurred the largest mass migration in U.S. History, where hundreds of thousands of people left their homes to become prospectors in California.
17. Californios: Definition & History
Explore the history and culture of the Californios and test your knowledge of American history, world politics of the 19th century, and the Spanish peoples of California.
18. Gadsden Purchase of 1853: Definition, Map & Summary
The addition of new territory in America was always a balancing act in the years leading up to the Civil War. The Gadsden Purchase motivated serious debate about slavery in U.S. territories and exposed deep sectional rifts. Develop an understanding of the Gadsden Purchase. Test your knowledge with a short quiz.
19. John Sutter & the Gold Rush: Facts, Timeline & Sutter's Mill
In this lesson we explore John Sutter and the California Gold Rush. First discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, the Gold Rush ruined Sutter's empire in the Sacramento Valley.
20. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo: Biography & History
Before California was the home to famous movie stars and Hollywood, it was the birthplace of Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, a wealthy Mexican military leader. In this lesson you will learn about the life and career of Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo.
21. The Annexation of California from Mexico
From 1820 to 1850, five different flags flew over the state of California. Read on to learn how this territory of the Mexican Far North became the west coast of the United States.
22. First Lady Frances Cleveland: Biography, Marriage & Quotes
This lesson will explore the life of Frances Folsom Cleveland. This first lady was the youngest ever and the only one to be married in the White House.
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Other chapters within the High School US History: Tutoring Solution course
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